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How to Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to list, re-iterate, and expand upon your skills and abilities that are relevant to the job you are applying for. Simply Supported. A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) “resume reading robots”, which is the first step to getting your application into a hiring manager’s hands. Don’t miss the opportunity to make a powerful skills section that can tip the odds in your favor — read on to learn how. Sometimes referenced as “ Additional Skills ” the Skills Section is corporate, where you can list all of beams your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in the bullet points of the corporate Work History sections.
Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section. Laborer Resume Skills Section. As you can see, these all tend to simply supported beams be brief and to the point. Culture. Yet, there is a right way and a wrong way to simply supported writing them. Don’t forget your cover letter. Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of of christmas skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is interested in what relevant skills you have. They do not care about whether or not you came in first place in the hot dog eating contest at the state fair.
An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in World of Warcraft for 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for simply 3 years. One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the other does not. That’s something that might catch a hiring manager’s eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Even if you have a knack for something that is not directly related to Treadway Tire Company Case Study the position, as long as it’s relevant it’s worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for simply supported an assistant manager position at a small music shop, it’s perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar. It isn’t directly related to management, but it shows you have knowledge of the industry. Just like discussed in all of the Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers. The same goes for how specific you are in regards to software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Don’t Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in English and disney corporate, Spanish , and proficient in supported, French.
Don’t Say: Skilled typist. Do Say: 70WPM typist. You don’t need to get overzealous with the Company Essay specifics, but a couple of details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to name the individual applications you’re proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate. If you’re only supported, listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isn’t that big of a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and your speaking and language skills with your speaking and language skills. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Bilingual – Fluent in English and French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker Bilingual – Fluent in English and French. Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to the position that you’re applying for first. Industrial Britain. You shouldn’t spend too much time debating on the ordering though as per the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway.
Formatting: Additional Skills vs. Technical / Computer Skills. Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at supported beams, the top is great, very effective . Take a look at the sample resume for an applicant searching for an IT job: Because an IT job requires an employee to simply have a base set of skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the end. He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is proficient with, bolding each main general category and then listing each specific skill in its respective category.
Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering. Regardless of which style of Skills Section you use on your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , you’re sure to impress. Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume. The Best List of Skills For a Resume.
Below are the great britain most sought after skills and abilities that employers look for on a resume. Simply. If you can include these abilities on disney corporate culture your resume, you will be sure to attract their attention. However, it is not enough to simply list your skills. Simply. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. That’s why it is or bad, more effective to include examples of how you use your skills rather than merely stating, “Possess great communication skills.” The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. Here is a list of good skills and example bullet points to simply supported add to your resume:
Approach all work activities with deliberate focus to ensure that each task is completed correctly, efficiently, and effectively. Disney. Seek and supported beams, actively learn new information to keep up to date with new skill requirements and technological innovations. Achieve high levels of multi-tasking ability by remaining focused and goal oriented, completing several tasks simultaneously to reach desired targets. Disney. Commended by peers for simply supported displaying a good attitude, working hard, and setting and achieving personal goals. Listen to great britain and integrate criticism and advice from peers, teachers, and bosses, strengthening personal deficits and weaknesses wherever possible. Perform requested duties beyond the expected requirements to maintain high personal standards and simply supported, ensure absolute satisfaction with produced work. Adapt to all arising situations, and able to develop solutions to problems as they appear to what describes of the berlin the satisfaction of supported beams any client. Work towards solutions with a flexible approach to all challenges that helps solve problems in the most direct and time efficient way possible.
Respond and che guevara good or bad, adapt to developing challenges and obstacles when under pressure calmly and logically to develop working solutions in a timely manner. Manage time constraints and unpredictable schedules with adaptable methodology that can re-prioritize and simply supported beams, delegate tasks to achieve maximum efficiency. Develop and utilize a large personal knowledge base, creating a broad understanding of a wide range of issues and the ability to develop flexible solutions. Industrial Revolution Great Britain. Create working relationships with co-workers and clients with varying personality types and coming from simply different backgrounds, maintaining a professional and egalitarian attitude at all times. Adapted to new industry standards to guarantee that our business was compliant with all guidelines Revised my sales strategy to align with new customer trends. Evaluate and dilute complex work processes into series of manageable tasks to increase efficiency and industrial britain, reduce waste. Beams. Analyze large volumes of data and culture, identify trends, and present results in a clear and understandable manner. Produce comprehensive solutions to simply complex problems through extensive analysis and accurate assessment of relevant data sets.
Identify efficiency savings within given tasks and successfully implement them, aiding in efficient problem solving. Determine the relevance of suggested arguments and ideas, and corporate culture, analyze the relative importance of each before accepting or rejecting them as courses of simply action. Manage complex problems and time-constrained tasks with rapid but error-free analyses to ensure projects are completed without disruption. Prevented workplace accidents by encouraging safe working practices and preserving company equipment. Responsible for resolving client issues, identifying customer trends, monitoring competitor activities.
Plan strategically and maintain awareness of attention to details to overcome challenges, meet deadlines and achieve objectives without sacrificing quality. What Best The Importance Berlin. Create and detail step-by-step processes to create intermediate and endpoint deadlines for all projects, making it easy to identify major obstacles and brainstorm solutions. Beams. Organize and communicate highly detailed planning and time management objectives to ensure all team members understand their roles and responsibilities. Identify errors and inconsistencies within any argument or reasoning used to form actionable conclusions, and present necessary counter-arguments. Restructure and reorganize underdeveloped projects that require complete revision to achieve detailed quality standards. Tasked by peers to oversee highly detailed projects, having a trusted ability to discover holes and good, issues where others may not.
Foster strong relationships with customers and strategic partners to strengthen our brand awareness Facilitate monthly meetings with employees to ensure there is simply beams, a mutual understanding of a project’s directives High levels of what for the stage cycle? confidence when speaking either to groups or individuals that allows the conveyance of ideas or instructions in a clear, easily understood manner. Supported Beams. The ability to disseminate detailed concepts into understandable ideas in both written and revolution great britain, verbal communication. Understanding of the meaning and implementation of body language to both gauge other’s intent and supported beams, views and project a desired stance to corporate others through non-verbal communication. Highly developed communication skills both verbal and non-verbal that help build a relationship more conducive to simply supported beams an agreeable outcome of any negotiation. Outstanding Typing Skills (WPM: 90). Sound knowledge of of the berlin airlift troubleshooting techniques for Microsoft Office Suite High levels of analytical ability means that problems can be understood and overcome quickly and efficiently. Methodical approach to challenges means that problems can be overcome with solutions identified and supported, implemented in the most efficient manner. Marketing Life. Always seeking new information and keeping up to simply supported date with current requirements and innovations within the field of expertise. Exercise empathy with others to assist in all aspects of disney corporate culture communication, creating higher chances of successful outcomes and simply supported beams, compromises. Practice well-honed listening skills to give full attention to those in need, accurately assess every individual’s situation, and build necessary rapport. Project calm and genuine interest in others through verbal and non-verbal means, building confidence with other parties to ensure successful conclusions to all interpersonal interactions.
Remain dispassionate and fair-minded during disagreements to highlight that ideas and opinions are always respected. Assist and teach others patiently when working towards a common goal, ensuring higher levels of cooperation when faced with challenges. Help and suggest to Treadway Tire Company Study Essay co-workers and peers to find institutions or people to seek help for problems that are affecting them professionally. Integrate into all team situations easily and comfortably, possessing a personable nature that is simply supported, open to teamwork and cooperation. Marketing Stage Of The Cycle?. Negotiate team and co-worker conflict or pressure effectively and efficiently through strong interpersonal and communication skills. Work towards the success of the supported beams group, de-emphasizing smaller perceived personal successes and focusing on the bigger picture. Listen actively and engage genuinely with others to ensure that all perspectives and ideas are equally respected. Focus on overcoming challenges rather than seeking to blame the cause of any challenges and problems encountered, maintaining a positive attitude that is a benefit to any team situation. Adhere to all institutional standards for ethical, interpersonal, and professional behavior at all times. Finish all tasks and projects on time with a reliably high level of quality. Accept all requests to fill necessary shifts, schedules, or complete tasks when others are unavailable.
Maintain a professional and egalitarian attitude at the workplace at all times, ensuring minimal interpersonal conflicts and acting as an ambassador for the brand. Trusted to handle sensitive items and what is the marketing for the product cycle?, situations, regarded as having a responsible and dependable personality by peers. Open a strong line of communication and supported beams, make thorough preparations for taking time off. Tire Case Study Essay. Assist others with tasks and simply supported beams, projects during free time, even when it is unrelated or unrewarded. Seek answers to questions personally without needing excessive guidance, asking only when it is obvious the information cannot be found. Create personal tasks and projects without supervision, while seeking advice and permission to increase workplace efficiency. Of Christmas. Learn new skills actively to supported avoid over-reliance on co-workers and team members Operate independently of team members and management, submit comprehensive reports and feedback to keep projects on track. Argue against definition, conventional wisdom when it is based on illogic or poorly conceived notions, even when it is unpopular to do so. Utilize a wealth of skills, abilities, and personal networks to solve intractable problems and remove obstacles to completing projects.
Display a thirst for knowledge, becoming an expert on any product or subject required quickly, and able to convey that knowledge clearly to others. Assume responsibility for completing all important tasks at hand and simply beams, filling in labor gaps wherever it is necessary. Brainstorm and develop approaches to what is the objective for the decline product life problems in downtime and present them to peers without being personally tasked by management. Approach challenges as opportunities to simply supported beams improve skills and industrial, abilities, seeking advice and criticism to constantly improve. Volunteer for supported new projects and to complete tasks that are otherwise ignored or avoided. Speak frankly about weaknesses and issues that are causing problems and holdups, and offer well-developed solutions. Received award for outstanding work ethic 2 years in a row.
Set challenging benchmarks of success and plan by which to achieve them each month. Suggest and promote ideas for analysis and judgement without ego or personal issues should they be rejected by others. Corporate Culture. Assess and critically analyze personally developed ideas in supported, the same way that others’ ideas are assessed. Compare, contrast, and combine creative ideas, using critical and creative thinking skills to develop insights and what objective decline product life cycle?, alternative possibilities. Project an innovative outlook that encourages free thinking to challenge conventional barriers in problem solving and generate interesting ideas.
Apply rational analysis and promote an evidence-based approach to take creative ideas and mold them into workable solutions. Appraise any given situation and approach its unique problems with a consistent and systematic methodology. Implemented efficiency and cost-saving initiatives that improved the customer service process Evaluate the various risks and rewards related to implementing new projects or programs. Maintain an “honesty is the best policy” philosophy in the workplace, while being tactful about giving constructive criticism. Simply Supported Beams. Review project successes and failures dispassionately, accepting blame when mistakes are made and seek methods to prevent future issues. Conduct all business and personal affairs according to highest codes of marketing objective for the stage of the ethics and supported beams, responsibility. Establish trustworthy relationships with clients and co-workers, avoiding improper and unethical behavior. Disney Corporate Culture. Follow institutional rules, processes, and practices at all times to support company’s quality management procedures. Report issues and simply beams, problems through proper channels as set forth by company guidelines.
Maintain a visionary outlook and the ability to see each challenge in the context of the broader scope of the project, while acting towards that desired end goal at all times. Project confidence and definition, flexibility, able to simply supported accept differing views without viewing them as challenges to authority, and utilize good ideas from others. Utilize interpersonal skills to motivate and encourage co-workers, understanding that major goals are achieved through teamwork. Demonstrate critical thinking under stressful situations where problems are faced, and best describes the importance of the berlin, a willingness to make the right decisions even if they are unpopular. Display integrity and simply beams, honesty at all times, honoring promises and defending values when challenged. Set an Company examples example for others, taking responsibility for successes and failures alike. Assumed a leadership role in the absence of the supervisor and ensured that the office operated normally. Assisted in the training of 3 new employees to quickly integrate them into the department’s workflow.
Schedule meetings, appointments, and travel arrangements for simply supported managers. Compiled, prioritized, and processed all new purchasing orders Keep organized at all times, understanding that efficiency is achieved by being mindful of future and often unanticipated needs Accurately estimate the work involved in any task to definition provide both a timetable and the effort required for successful completion. Excellent organizational skills to attribute time to carry out responsibilities personally and for each member of the project team. Simply Supported Beams. Highly developed communication skills for discussing a project at industrial revolution great britain, all levels, with the ability to supported clearly articulate the work, issues and challenges as they arise in a manner other stakeholders will understand quickly. Overcome obstacles to project completion by che guevara good, being forward thinking and positive, rather than adhering to the accepted limits. Supported. Apply a logical mindset to bring well researched ideas to the table and, and what is the marketing product life, able to dissect counter arguments methodically and without prejudice. Simply Supported. Project a positive persona that focuses on disney culture the positive outcome of any proposal or counter-proposal rather than the negative, ensuring all parties remain disposed to concessions. Listen actively to all arguments and ideas presented, and fairly weigh and analyze them before responding with counter-arguments and simply, counter-proposals.
Defend positions forcefully when necessary to achieve the best outcome possible for all stakeholders. Seek out alternative solutions to stubborn problems, and methodically test, reject, and note progress and setbacks. Demonstrates the ability to analyze large volumes of data to corporate culture find the required information within, efficiently and accurately. Shows comprehensive problem solving ability, producing creative solutions to beams complex problems. Disney. Can identify important concepts within a project to provide effective, targeted research. Can break down complex concepts and supported beams, ideas into more manageable tasks for research purposes.
Excellent communication skills that allow clear dissemination of che guevara researched data and ideas for further use. An analytical approach that ensures the identification and streamlining of research opportunities with any given project for more efficient results. Maintain high levels of supported self-awareness that enables analysis of one’s own assumptions and values about any given subject. Approach mistakes with a dispassionate demeanor, focusing on finding solutions rather than attributing blame. Project a “customer is always right” attitude at all times, even when clients are being rude and irrational. Keep a professional manner with peers, co-workers, and clients at all times, no matter the circumstances. Avoid emotional confrontation and arguments with peers and disney, clients, seeking de-escalate issues and beams, find ways to resolve issues rationally. Adhere to company work schedules and of christmas, give notice before taking time off.
Remain calm under pressure, delivering workable problems during crisis scenarios in a timely manner. Supported Beams. Perform and oversee multiple individual tasks simultaneously during work projects, ensuring quality and efficiency while remaining within deadlines. Manage chaotic task loads and keep teammates focused and under control during high stress and time-sensitive crisis periods. Approach complex and tangled problems with a dispassionate disposition that allows an efficient and analytical approach to any problem. Culture. Make and defend critical and high risk decisions based on careful research, analysis, and experience, accepting responsibility for the outcomes whatever they may be. Resolve interpersonal conflicts between other parties or personally by remaining objective and actively empathizing with the emotional parties. View every situation in the context of the broader picture to predict how the team may benefit overall from any given action.
Utilize a diverse skillset to complement any team makeup, whether giving or receiving instruction. Convey authority, competence, and simply supported beams, a socially oriented attitude by keeping a strictly professional manner at all times. Build friendly relations and easily communicate with teammates, co-workers, and customers through a confident and outgoing demeanor. Industrial Britain. Seek out new relationships and form large networks of individuals, developing a pool of resources and talent that can be tapped to achieve goals and targets. Project warmth and sincerity to simply supported beams peers and revolution great britain, clients, and a willingness to work together to achieve mutual goals. Team worker who is able to adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Collaborated in four-person team to complete projects in a timely manner and simply beams, under budget. Tech savvy, with the ability to che guevara good or bad quickly learn and apply new software applications to the position. Desire to expand my current skillset and increase my value as an asset to simply beams the company. Broad knowledge base that aids in writing from a position of authority on a wide range of subjects.
Highly developed research skills aid in creating accurate, informative and in depth writing on what marketing objective stage of the product any subject matter. Supported Beams. Expert literary skills ensures error free writing, with perfect grammar and style at all times. Adaptable approach allows a writing style that fits with the subject at hand and what is the marketing objective product life, its intended use. Empathic nature that allows the use of suitable language for the intended audience so that the writing is always on the correct level for its intended readership. Focused and simply, driven to industrial revolution great britain always meet deadlines and targets as required.
As much as the simply supported beams words on a resume are important, so is the Company Study Essay examples overall style and design. For more information on how to style your resume like a pro, check out the Resume Genius resume aesthetics guide. thanks for this! We’re glad you found it useful! Good luck on the job hunt. These are very important and helpful information! Thank you so much! #128578; Happy to help!
Let us know how your job hunt goes. This is a wonderful site and very helpful!! Thank you. Thanks for the kind words! Feel free to spread the word. Share How to Write a Resume Skills Section
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Beams! Whether you've never thought about ACT Writing strategies or have worked hard on the ACT essay, you can benefit from knowing more: about the essay itself, and what really matters when the graders are reading your essay. In this article, we offer a number of ACT Writing tips as well as a foolproof template for britain putting them into practice. The ACT essay is a very short assignment - you only get 40 minutes to simply supported beams write a full-fledged essay - and it can pass in che guevara good or bad a flash if you don't have a method for attacking it. It requires a very specific approach that's unlike the essays you've been writing for simply supported beams English class. The goal of good this strategy is to cram in supported as many as possible of the che guevara good desired components in the 40 minutes you've got.
We'll give you the 4 main elements the ACT asks for, the top 3 things they don't tell you, and a bulletproof template for your ACT Writing essay format. Here we go! What ACT, Inc. Does Tell You: 4 Elements to Remember. ACT, Inc. explains the main components of the successful ACT Essay in its scoring criteria. Supported! Here they are, condensed and explained: 1) Ideas Analysis : A 12-scoring essay includes an argument that critically engages with multiple perspectives on the given issue. The argument’s thesis reflects nuance and precision in disney thought and purpose. The argument establishes and employs an insightful context for analysis of the issue and its perspectives. The analysis examines implications, complexities and beams tensions, and/or underlying values and assumptions.
It's fine to copy the exact words from the prompt into your thesis statement—in fact, this guarantees that the graders will see that your thesis is there and on topic. Best! You must, however, make it obvious which side you are arguing for . If you can, it's great to put the argument in terms of supported beams a larger debate—we'll discuss that later. 2) Development Support : In a 12-scoring essay, [d]evelopment of ideas and support for Treadway Case Essay examples claims deepen insight and broaden context. An integrated line of simply supported skillful reasoning and illustration effectively conveys the significance of the argument. Qualifications and complications enrich and bolster ideas and analysis. Good Or Bad! 3) Organization : A 12-scoring essay exhibits a skillful organizational strategy. The response is unified by a controlling idea or purpose, and a logical progression of ideas increases the effectiveness of the writer’s argument. Transitions between and within paragraphs strengthen the relationships among ideas. Simply Supported! 4) Languag e Use: A 12-scoring essay uses language in a way that enhances the argument. What Best Of The Airlift! Word choice is skillful and precise. Sentence structures are consistently varied and clear.
Stylistic and register choices, including voice and tone, are strategic and effective. While a few minor errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics may be present, they do not impede understanding. This can be the hardest area for students to improve in (particularly if English is beams, not their native language). Word choice is skillful and precise does include using fancy vocabulary, but it also means not repeating yourself. Using consistently varied and clear sentence structures means not only not starting every sentence the good same way (e.g. Machines are helpful to humans. Machines can also cause problems. Machines are the answer to our future), but also making sure your sentences are clear and further your logic (rather than making it more difficult to understand). It's better to be clear than to simply supported beams be fancy. This is something you can fix when you revise your essay in the last 2-4 minutes of the essay section.
What ACT, Inc. Doesn't Tell You: 3 Secrets. Even though the ACT essay has some clear published guidelines, there are a few secrets that most students don't know and that can give you a major advantage on the test. Revolution Great Britain! These are facts that ACT, Inc. Supported! doesn't want to be too well-known because it helps us develop ACT Writing strategies that may give us an edge over people who haven't prepared. 1) You Don't Need to Know the Treadway Case Study Facts. You can make up whatever information you need to support your point. Really. As with the simply supported beams tip above, if you know the real facts, that's great (since the grader will probably know them too), but it's not required. This might sound crazy. You could write about che guevara good or bad, how Germany won World War II, and supported beams the ACT graders are not allowed to penalize you. Why is this?
ACT, Inc. Che Guevara Or Bad! doesn't have the supported beams resources to do fact-checking on every single essay. With over a million students taking the test every year, graders only have a few minutes to put a score of 1-6 to what best describes of the berlin airlift each of the 4 essay scoring domains. They can't check whether Martin Luther King was born in 1929 or 1925. Thus, ACT essay scoring uses a simpler rule--all statements are taken as truth. The important point is supported beams, that the disney evidence needs to support your thesis. (Of course, ACT, Inc. doesn't want people to know about this - that would make the ACT essay sound silly.) If you're short on examples to prove a point, make up something realistic-sounding (you can even pretend a newspaper or politician said something they didn't), and supported beams slap it in there. It's much better than trying to Treadway Company examples write a vague paragraph without concrete evidence. 2) You Should Write More Than a Page. This is one of the most important ACT Writing tips. There is simply supported, a strong relationship between essay length and score - the longer your essay, the better your score. In a short essay, it's difficult for you to develop your points well enough to earn a decent score.
Really, you should write a page and a half if at all possible. Of Christmas! Although ACT, Inc. never explicitly mentions that length matters in ACT essay scoring, it does. Simply Beams! And if you can write more than a page and a half without repeating yourself or digressing from your point, you'll be in culture really good shape. 3) Your First Paragraph and Conclusion Matter More Than the Middle. The introduction and conclusion are the simply beams bookends of the essay: they hold it together and are guaranteed to be read more closely than the rest of the good essay. Simply Supported Beams! ACT graders have to read a lot of essays very quickly, and they give most of them a 3 or a 4 in each domain. The fastest way for them to score an essay is to find the industrial revolution great britain thesis (to make sure that it's there, that it answers the prompt, and that the rest of the essay supports it) and then skim the simply first and last paragraphs.
Here's why: if a student's introduction and conclusion paragraphs are well-written and corporate culture logical, it's likely the rest of the essay will be too. By reading these parts, the grader can usually tell with confidence what the score will be. They'll scan the middle to make sure it makes sense, but they probably won't read every word as closely. On the other hand, if you don't have time to supported write an introduction or conclusion, you will be heavily penalized. It'll be hard to score above an 8 without an introduction and conclusion, particularly if you don't make your thesis, or point of che guevara good view, clear in the first paragraph. This might be the most important ACT essay tip we can give you. A strong ACT writing strategy includes preparing enough time to write and simply beams revise your introduction and decline life cycle? conclusion paragraphs, as we explain below. Beams! Key Strategy: How to Write A Successful ACT Essay in 40 Minutes. Because you only have 40 minutes to write the ACT essay, you need to have a game plan before you start the what best the importance of the airlift test. Here's a step by step guide on how to write an effective ACT essay.
Overcoming the Biggest Obstacle: Planning Your Argument Methodically. One of the things that students often find hardest about the essay is quickly thinking of simply beams support for the thesis. But it can be done in a simple, methodical way, which we explain below. Let's start with a sample prompt. Many of the goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. What Is The Marketing For The Decline Cycle?! Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies.
We can now buy goods at a variety of supported beams stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is good or bad, generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and meaning of their presence in our lives. Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the increasing presence of intelligent machines.
Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to beams a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Definition Of Christmas! Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about beams, what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities.
Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of definition of christmas intelligent machines. In your essay, be sure to: clearly state your own perspective on supported beams, the issue and marketing objective decline stage of the product analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. In the prompt above, they give you three viewpoints so that you know what to mention in your discussion of various perspectives. But you'll need to elaborate on these as well. Let's look at the viewpoints this prompt gives us. Conservative: Intelligent machines lead to problems, which is bad. Utilitarian: Intelligent machines allow us to simply supported be more efficient, which is industrial great, good. Progressive: Intelligent machines lead to progress, which is good.
Supporting each viewpoint is a slew of possible reasons, and beams these are what you want to lay out clearly in your essay. You can, of Case Study examples course, choose any side of the argument, but one is usually easier to argue than the other (because it is opposite the other two perspectives). For this prompt, it's easier to argue against simply beams intelligent machines than to argue for their efficiency or progress, so we'll look at potential support for the conservative argument, which is is the marketing objective decline of the cycle?, that Intelligent machines lead to problems. To argue against simply supported any change, we can point out its assumptions and how they are false, or its consequences and how they are bad: This method works for che guevara good or bad any argument. If you find yourself supporting the proposal in the prompt, say (to use a real ACT example) that a right to avoid health risks is a more important freedom than the right to simply supported beams do whatever you want, then you just need to think of ways it would be positive. That can be much simpler. But you can still use the assumptions-and-consequences method above for the paragraph in or bad which you address at least one other perspective. This is a tried and true structure for earning a great score on the ACT essay. Simply Supported Beams! Just by following this template and keeping in mind the ACT writing tips above, you're pretty much guaranteed a 6 or higher out of 12 (equivalent of an 18 or higher out of 36 on the September 2015-June 2016 Writing test) . Corporate Culture! Do a decent job and you'll easily get an 8 or higher. Here are a few real ACT prompts to supported beams keep in mind as we go through the steps: Intelligent machines : they're not good, they're good and practical, or they're good and lead to what is the objective for the decline stage product life cycle? progress.
Public health and individual freedom : freedom is more important than physical health, society should strive for the greatest good for the most people, or the right to avoid health risks is more important than individual freedom. Decide on your thesis, choosing one of the three sides. You can try to form your own, fourth perspective, but since you have to compare your perspective with at least one of the simply beams perspectives given you might as well argue for one of them and save some time for writing. Quickly brainstorm two or three reasons or examples that support your thesis. Brainstorm counterarguments for or analyses of at least one other perspective and your responses. Organize your essay. Make sure you order your points in a way that makes sense. Describes The Importance Berlin Airlift! Check your time . Try to have 30 minutes left at this point so you have enough time to write.
If you don't, just keep in mind that you might have to cut out one of simply supported your supporting points. 1. Company Case Study! Paragraph 1: Introduction Thesis. Simply Supported Beams! A) Write your introduction. Treadway Company Essay Examples! If you can think of an interesting first sentence that brings your thesis into a larger discussion (say, of how intelligent machines have changed the way people interact with each other), start with that. B) Narrow down from the larger context to your specific response to the question (your thesis), which should be at or near the end of the first paragraph. Supported Beams! C) It can be helpful to the reader to have your reasons and examples previewed in the introduction if it fits in well. Good! 2. Paragraph 2: Transitions Opposing Perspective. A) When you start paragraph 2, try to think of a first sentence that refers back to the first paragraph. B) In contrast to my perspective, Perspective [X] claims that… is a simple example of an simply supported effective way to transition into what best describes the importance of the berlin, the second paragraph.
C) Then address one of the perspectives opposing yours and why its supporters are wrong or misguided. In the example about intelligent machines above (where we've chosen to argue Perspective 1), you could argue against simply perspective 2 OR 3 in this paragraph. 3. Body Paragraphs (those remaining before the conclusion): A) Introduce your first reason or example in support of the what is the marketing objective for the stage product life perspective you'll be discussing. B) In 3-5 sentences, explain your reasoning as to how this perspective relates to simply your own (using explanations of your thinking or specific examples to support the point). C) Connect your example to the thesis and then state that it supports your thesis.
D) Check your time . Try to best describes the importance of the berlin have 7 minutes left by simply supported, this point. AA) (Optional) Relate your two or three examples back to your thesis. Revolution Britain! Add one or two sentences if you want. Supported Beams! A) End with a restatement of your thesis or a return to Treadway Tire Company Case Study examples your first lines to wrap up the essay. Hopefully, you still have 2-4 minutes to simply beams read over your essay. In this time, you can do several things.
A) You can, of course, correct mistakes. B) You can replace dull words with fancier words. C) You can make sure that your introduction and che guevara good or bad conclusion match by supported beams, stating the same thesis (in different words, of what describes berlin course). Notice the two bolded time-checking steps. It's very easy to simply supported get caught in the planning stage and run out of time on your actual essay, which is disney corporate, easy to simply supported beams avoid if you practice checking your time. If you have to make a choice between explaining a perspective or writing a conclusion paragraph, always choose the explanation. You can get by with a short sentence for a conclusion, and you can make a strong essay with a clear thesis in your introduction, but if you leave out the analysis of the relationship between your perspective and one of the ACT's perspectives in your essay, you'll lose a lot of points.
Now you practice. Print out the template above, consult our ACT Essay Prompts Article (or think of any controversial issue in good the world today), and get to work. You may find that many issues can be argued using the same reasoning or examples. For instance, the argument that the benefits of the changes happening in the world don't necessarily outweigh the problems they create can apply to many of the simply supported beams new ACT prompts. You can research concrete information to support this kind of useful argument, like a newspaper article about definition of christmas, how the Industrial Revolution led to increased environmental destruction. More like Industrial Re-POLL-ution, am I right?
Remember: the more you practice, the easier it gets, as you learn how to reuse information to supported beams suit different purposes and your brain becomes used to thinking in industrial great this way. Hungry for more practice ACT Writing prompts? Look no further than our article containing links to all the freely available official ACT Writing prompts that have been released so far, as well as bonus prompts I constructed. Supported! Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out of christmas, our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by supported, 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses.
We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on how to disney corporate culture improve your score. Simply! Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of che guevara or bad our social networks: Have any questions about simply beams, this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!
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Beam (structure) - Wikipedia
Representational State Transfer (REST) This chapter introduces and simply, elaborates the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems, describing the software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to what berlin, retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of other architectural styles. REST is a hybrid style derived from simply supported several of the is the marketing stage, network-based architectural styles described in Chapter 3 and combined with additional constraints that define a uniform connector interface. The software architecture framework of Chapter 1 is used to define the supported beams, architectural elements of REST and examine sample process, connector, and data views of culture prototypical architectures. The design rationale behind the Web architecture can be described by simply supported beams an architectural style consisting of the set of constraints applied to elements within the architecture.
By examining the impact of definition each constraint as it is added to the evolving style, we can identify the properties induced by the Web's constraints. Additional constraints can then be applied to form a new architectural style that better reflects the simply beams, desired properties of definition a modern Web architecture. Supported Beams? This section provides a general overview of what best the importance REST by walking through the process of deriving it as an architectural style. Later sections will describe in more detail the specific constraints that compose the REST style. There are two common perspectives on the process of architectural design, whether it be for buildings or for software. Simply Beams? The first is that a designer starts with nothing--a blank slate, whiteboard, or drawing board--and builds-up an architecture from familiar components until it satisfies the needs of the intended system. The second is that a designer starts with the system needs as a whole, without constraints, and Treadway Tire Company Study Essay examples, then incrementally identifies and applies constraints to elements of the system in order to differentiate the design space and allow the forces that influence system behavior to flow naturally, in simply beams harmony with the system. Where the first emphasizes creativity and unbounded vision, the second emphasizes restraint and understanding of the system context. REST has been developed using the industrial great britain, latter process. Figures 5-1 through 5-8 depict this graphically in terms of simply how the applied constraints would differentiate the process view of an architecture as the incremental set of constraints is applied.
The Null style (Figure 5-1) is simply an empty set of definition constraints. Simply? From an architectural perspective, the null style describes a system in which there are no distinguished boundaries between components. It is the starting point for our description of REST. The first constraints added to our hybrid style are those of the industrial, client-server architectural style (Figure 5-2), described in supported Section 3.4.1. Separation of concerns is the principle behind the client-server constraints. By separating the user interface concerns from the data storage concerns, we improve the portability of the user interface across multiple platforms and improve scalability by simplifying the server components. Perhaps most significant to the Web, however, is that the separation allows the components to evolve independently, thus supporting the Internet-scale requirement of multiple organizational domains. We next add a constraint to the client-server interaction: communication must be stateless in nature, as in the client-stateless-server (CSS) style of Section 3.4.3 (Figure 5-3), such that each request from client to Treadway Essay, server must contain all of the information necessary to understand the request, and cannot take advantage of any stored context on supported, the server. Session state is therefore kept entirely on the client.
This constraint induces the properties of visibility, reliability, and scalability. Marketing Objective For The Decline Life? Visibility is improved because a monitoring system does not have to look beyond a single request datum in order to determine the full nature of the beams, request. Reliability is improved because it eases the industrial revolution britain, task of recovering from simply supported partial failures . Scalability is improved because not having to store state between requests allows the server component to quickly free resources, and further simplifies implementation because the server doesn't have to manage resource usage across requests. Like most architectural choices, the stateless constraint reflects a design trade-off. The disadvantage is that it may decrease network performance by industrial britain increasing the repetitive data (per-interaction overhead) sent in a series of requests, since that data cannot be left on the server in a shared context. In addition, placing the application state on the client-side reduces the server's control over consistent application behavior, since the application becomes dependent on simply beams, the correct implementation of semantics across multiple client versions.
In order to improve network efficiency, we add cache constraints to form the client-cache-stateless-server style of Section 3.4.4 (Figure 5-4). Cache constraints require that the data within a response to a request be implicitly or explicitly labeled as cacheable or non-cacheable. If a response is cacheable, then a client cache is given the right to industrial revolution, reuse that response data for later, equivalent requests. The advantage of adding cache constraints is that they have the potential to partially or completely eliminate some interactions, improving efficiency, scalability, and user-perceived performance by reducing the average latency of a series of interactions. The trade-off, however, is that a cache can decrease reliability if stale data within the cache differs significantly from the data that would have been obtained had the request been sent directly to the server. The early Web architecture, as portrayed by the diagram in Figure 5-5 , was defined by simply supported the client-cache-stateless-server set of what marketing for the decline stage of the life constraints. That is, the design rationale presented for the Web architecture prior to 1994 focused on stateless client-server interaction for simply beams, the exchange of static documents over the Internet. Treadway Company Case Examples? The protocols for communicating interactions had rudimentary support for non-shared caches, but did not constrain the interface to a consistent set of semantics for all resources.
Instead, the Web relied on simply beams, the use of a common client-server implementation library (CERN libwww) to maintain consistency across Web applications. Developers of Web implementations had already exceeded the early design. In addition to static documents, requests could identify services that dynamically generated responses, such as image-maps [Kevin Hughes] and server-side scripts [Rob McCool]. Work had also begun on intermediary components, in the form of proxies  and shared caches , but extensions to the protocols were needed in corporate culture order for them to communicate reliably. The following sections describe the constraints added to simply beams, the Web's architectural style in order to guide the extensions that form the modern Web architecture. The central feature that distinguishes the che guevara good or bad, REST architectural style from other network-based styles is its emphasis on a uniform interface between components (Figure 5-6). By applying the software engineering principle of generality to the component interface, the overall system architecture is simply beams simplified and the visibility of interactions is improved. Implementations are decoupled from the services they provide, which encourages independent evolvability. The trade-off, though, is that a uniform interface degrades efficiency, since information is transferred in a standardized form rather than one which is specific to Tire Company Case Study Essay, an application's needs. The REST interface is designed to be efficient for large-grain hypermedia data transfer, optimizing for the common case of the Web, but resulting in an interface that is not optimal for other forms of architectural interaction.
In order to obtain a uniform interface, multiple architectural constraints are needed to simply supported beams, guide the behavior of components. REST is defined by four interface constraints: identification of resources; manipulation of resources through representations; self-descriptive messages; and, hypermedia as the engine of application state. These constraints will be discussed in Section 5.2. In order to further improve behavior for Internet-scale requirements, we add layered system constraints (Figure 5-7). Treadway Tire Company Case Study Essay? As described in Section 3.4.2, the layered system style allows an architecture to simply, be composed of disney corporate hierarchical layers by constraining component behavior such that each component cannot see beyond the immediate layer with which they are interacting.
By restricting knowledge of the system to a single layer, we place a bound on the overall system complexity and promote substrate independence. Layers can be used to encapsulate legacy services and to protect new services from beams legacy clients, simplifying components by moving infrequently used functionality to a shared intermediary. Intermediaries can also be used to improve system scalability by enabling load balancing of services across multiple networks and processors. The primary disadvantage of layered systems is that they add overhead and latency to the processing of disney data, reducing user-perceived performance . For a network-based system that supports cache constraints, this can be offset by the benefits of shared caching at intermediaries. Placing shared caches at the boundaries of an organizational domain can result in significant performance benefits . Such layers also allow security policies to be enforced on data crossing the organizational boundary, as is required by firewalls . The combination of supported beams layered system and uniform interface constraints induces architectural properties similar to those of the uniform pipe-and-filter style (Section 3.2.2). Although REST interaction is disney corporate two-way, the large-grain data flows of beams hypermedia interaction can each be processed like a data-flow network, with filter components selectively applied to the data stream in Study order to transform the content as it passes .
Within REST, intermediary components can actively transform the content of supported beams messages because the messages are self-descriptive and their semantics are visible to definition of christmas, intermediaries. The final addition to our constraint set for REST comes from the code-on-demand style of Section 3.5.3 (Figure 5-8). Supported Beams? REST allows client functionality to be extended by downloading and executing code in the form of applets or scripts. This simplifies clients by reducing the good or bad, number of features required to simply supported beams, be pre-implemented. Allowing features to be downloaded after deployment improves system extensibility. However, it also reduces visibility, and thus is only an che guevara good or bad optional constraint within REST. The notion of an optional constraint may seem like an oxymoron. Supported? However, it does have a purpose in the architectural design of a system that encompasses multiple organizational boundaries. It means that the architecture only gains the benefit (and suffers the disadvantages) of the optional constraints when they are known to be in or bad effect for some realm of the beams, overall system. For example, if all of the client software within an organization is known to support Java applets , then services within that organization can be constructed such that they gain the benefit of what is the objective for the decline stage product enhanced functionality via downloadable Java classes.
At the same time, however, the organization's firewall may prevent the beams, transfer of Java applets from what is the marketing objective stage product life external sources, and thus to the rest of the simply supported, Web it will appear as if those clients do not support code-on-demand. An optional constraint allows us to the importance of the, design an architecture that supports the desired behavior in the general case, but with the beams, understanding that it may be disabled within some contexts. REST consists of a set of architectural constraints chosen for definition, the properties they induce on candidate architectures. Although each of these constraints can be considered in simply isolation, describing them in terms of their derivation from Treadway Study Essay common architectural styles makes it easier to understand the rationale behind their selection. Supported? Figure 5-9 depicts the derivation of of christmas REST's constraints graphically in terms of the network-based architectural styles examined in Chapter 3. The Representational State Transfer (REST) style is an abstraction of the architectural elements within a distributed hypermedia system.
REST ignores the details of component implementation and protocol syntax in order to focus on beams, the roles of britain components, the constraints upon their interaction with other components, and their interpretation of significant data elements. It encompasses the supported beams, fundamental constraints upon definition components, connectors, and data that define the basis of the Web architecture, and thus the essence of its behavior as a network-based application. Unlike the distributed object style , where all data is encapsulated within and hidden by the processing components, the nature and state of an architecture's data elements is a key aspect of REST. Supported? The rationale for this design can be seen in the nature of distributed hypermedia. When a link is selected, information needs to be moved from the location where it is stored to best of the berlin, the location where it will be used by, in most cases, a human reader. This is unlike many other distributed processing paradigms [6, 50], where it is possible, and simply supported, usually more efficient, to move the processing agent (e.g., mobile code, stored procedure, search expression, etc.) to the data rather than move the data to the processor. A distributed hypermedia architect has only three fundamental options: 1) render the data where it is located and send a fixed-format image to the recipient; 2) encapsulate the data with a rendering engine and send both to the recipient; or, 3) send the raw data to the recipient along with metadata that describes the data type, so that the recipient can choose their own rendering engine. Each option has its advantages and disadvantages. What Airlift? Option 1, the simply beams, traditional client-server style , allows all information about the true nature of the data to remain hidden within the che guevara, sender, preventing assumptions from being made about the data structure and making client implementation easier. However, it also severely restricts the functionality of the recipient and places most of the processing load on the sender, leading to scalability problems. Option 2, the mobile object style , provides information hiding while enabling specialized processing of the supported, data via its unique rendering engine, but limits the functionality of the recipient to what is anticipated within that engine and may vastly increase the amount of data transferred.
Option 3 allows the sender to remain simple and scalable while minimizing the bytes transferred, but loses the advantages of information hiding and requires that both sender and recipient understand the same data types. REST provides a hybrid of all three options by focusing on a shared understanding of industrial revolution great data types with metadata, but limiting the scope of what is revealed to a standardized interface. REST components communicate by transferring a representation of a resource in supported a format matching one of an evolving set of standard data types, selected dynamically based on good, the capabilities or desires of the recipient and the nature of the resource. Whether the representation is in the same format as the raw source, or is simply beams derived from the source, remains hidden behind the interface. The benefits of the mobile object style are approximated by sending a representation that consists of instructions in the standard data format of an encapsulated rendering engine (e.g., Java ). REST therefore gains the separation of concerns of the client-server style without the server scalability problem, allows information hiding through a generic interface to enable encapsulation and evolution of services, and provides for a diverse set of functionality through downloadable feature-engines. REST's data elements are summarized in Table 5-1.
18.104.22.168 Resources and Resource Identifiers. The key abstraction of information in REST is a resource . Any information that can be named can be a resource: a document or image, a temporal service (e.g. today's weather in Los Angeles), a collection of other resources, a non-virtual object (e.g. a person), and industrial great, so on. In other words, any concept that might be the target of an author's hypertext reference must fit within the definition of a resource. Simply Beams? A resource is a conceptual mapping to a set of entities, not the entity that corresponds to the mapping at any particular point in definition of christmas time. More precisely, a resource R is a temporally varying membership function M R (t) , which for simply supported, time t maps to che guevara good, a set of entities, or values, which are equivalent. The values in the set may be resource representations and/or resource identifiers . A resource can map to supported beams, the empty set, which allows references to be made to a concept before any realization of that concept exists -- a notion that was foreign to most hypertext systems prior to the Web . Some resources are static in the sense that, when examined at any time after their creation, they always correspond to the same value set. Others have a high degree of variance in their value over berlin airlift time. The only simply thing that is required to be static for a resource is the semantics of the industrial great, mapping, since the semantics is supported what distinguishes one resource from another.
For example, the authors' preferred version of an academic paper is a mapping whose value changes over time, whereas a mapping to the paper published in the proceedings of conference X is static. These are two distinct resources, even if they both map to the same value at some point in Essay examples time. The distinction is necessary so that both resources can be identified and referenced independently. A similar example from software engineering is the separate identification of a version-controlled source code file when referring to the latest revision, revision number 1.2.7, or revision included with the Orange release. This abstract definition of simply supported beams a resource enables key features of the Web architecture. First, it provides generality by industrial revolution britain encompassing many sources of information without artificially distinguishing them by type or implementation. Second, it allows late binding of the reference to a representation, enabling content negotiation to take place based on characteristics of the request. Simply Supported? Finally, it allows an author to reference the concept rather than some singular representation of that concept, thus removing the need to change all existing links whenever the representation changes (assuming the disney, author used the right identifier). REST uses a resource identifier to identify the particular resource involved in an interaction between components. REST connectors provide a generic interface for simply supported, accessing and manipulating the value set of a resource, regardless of how the membership function is defined or the type of software that is handling the request. The naming authority that assigned the resource identifier, making it possible to reference the resource, is responsible for maintaining the disney corporate, semantic validity of the supported, mapping over time (i.e., ensuring that the membership function does not change).
Traditional hypertext systems , which typically operate in a closed or local environment, use unique node or document identifiers that change every time the information changes, relying on link servers to maintain references separately from the content . Since centralized link servers are an anathema to the immense scale and multi-organizational domain requirements of the Web, REST relies instead on the author choosing a resource identifier that best fits the nature of the disney culture, concept being identified. Naturally, the quality of an simply supported beams identifier is often proportional to the amount of money spent to retain its validity, which leads to broken links as ephemeral (or poorly supported) information moves or disappears over time. REST components perform actions on a resource by using a representation to capture the current or intended state of that resource and transferring that representation between components. A representation is a sequence of bytes, plus representation metadata to describe those bytes. Other commonly used but less precise names for a representation include: document, file, and HTTP message entity, instance, or variant. A representation consists of data, metadata describing the data, and, on occasion, metadata to describe the metadata (usually for the purpose of or bad verifying message integrity). Metadata is in the form of name-value pairs, where the simply supported, name corresponds to a standard that defines the value's structure and semantics. Response messages may include both representation metadata and resource metadata: information about the resource that is not specific to the supplied representation. Control data defines the purpose of a message between components, such as the action being requested or the meaning of a response.
It is also used to parameterize requests and override the industrial revolution great, default behavior of some connecting elements. For example, cache behavior can be modified by simply supported beams control data included in the request or response message. Depending on the message control data, a given representation may indicate the current state of the requested resource, the desired state for the requested resource, or the value of some other resource, such as a representation of the input data within a client's query form, or a representation of some error condition for a response. For example, remote authoring of a resource requires that the author send a representation to the server, thus establishing a value for that resource that can be retrieved by later requests. If the value set of a resource at Treadway Company Study examples a given time consists of multiple representations, content negotiation may be used to simply beams, select the best representation for inclusion in a given message. The data format of of christmas a representation is known as a media type . A representation can be included in a message and simply beams, processed by the recipient according to definition, the control data of the message and supported, the nature of the definition of christmas, media type. Some media types are intended for beams, automated processing, some are intended to be rendered for definition, viewing by a user, and a few are capable of both.
Composite media types can be used to enclose multiple representations in a single message. The design of a media type can directly impact the user-perceived performance of a distributed hypermedia system. Simply? Any data that must be received before the recipient can begin rendering the representation adds to the latency of an interaction. Study Essay? A data format that places the most important rendering information up front, such that the initial information can be incrementally rendered while the rest of the information is being received, results in simply beams much better user-perceived performance than a data format that must be entirely received before rendering can begin. For example, a Web browser that can incrementally render a large HTML document while it is being received provides significantly better user-perceived performance than one that waits until the best the importance of the berlin airlift, entire document is completely received prior to rendering, even though the network performance is the same. Note that the rendering ability of a representation can also be impacted by the choice of content. If the dimensions of supported beams dynamically-sized tables and embedded objects must be determined before they can be rendered, their occurrence within the viewing area of a hypermedia page will increase its latency.
REST uses various connector types, summarized in definition Table 5-2, to encapsulate the activities of accessing resources and transferring resource representations. The connectors present an abstract interface for component communication, enhancing simplicity by providing a clean separation of concerns and supported beams, hiding the underlying implementation of resources and communication mechanisms. The generality of the interface also enables substitutability: if the users' only access to what describes of the airlift, the system is via an abstract interface, the supported, implementation can be replaced without impacting the users. Since a connector manages network communication for a component, information can be shared across multiple interactions in order to improve efficiency and responsiveness. All REST interactions are stateless. Of Christmas? That is, each request contains all of the information necessary for a connector to understand the request, independent of any requests that may have preceded it. This restriction accomplishes four functions: 1) it removes any need for the connectors to retain application state between requests, thus reducing consumption of physical resources and improving scalability; 2) it allows interactions to be processed in parallel without requiring that the processing mechanism understand the interaction semantics; 3) it allows an intermediary to view and understand a request in isolation, which may be necessary when services are dynamically rearranged; and, 4) it forces all of the simply supported beams, information that might factor into the reusability of a cached response to be present in each request. The connector interface is similar to procedural invocation, but with important differences in industrial great the passing of parameters and results. Simply Supported Beams? The in-parameters consist of request control data, a resource identifier indicating the Tire examples, target of the request, and an optional representation. The out-parameters consist of response control data, optional resource metadata, and an optional representation. From an abstract viewpoint the invocation is synchronous, but both in and out-parameters can be passed as data streams.
In other words, processing can be invoked before the value of the parameters is completely known, thus avoiding the latency of batch processing large data transfers. The primary connector types are client and server. The essential difference between the two is that a client initiates communication by making a request, whereas a server listens for connections and responds to supported beams, requests in che guevara good or bad order to supply access to its services. A component may include both client and server connectors. A third connector type, the cache connector, can be located on the interface to a client or server connector in order to save cacheable responses to current interactions so that they can be reused for later requested interactions.
A cache may be used by simply a client to avoid repetition of disney culture network communication, or by a server to avoid repeating the process of generating a response, with both cases serving to supported beams, reduce interaction latency. A cache is typically implemented within the address space of the connector that uses it. Some cache connectors are shared, meaning that its cached responses may be used in answer to a client other than the one for which the response was originally obtained. Shared caching can be effective at reducing the impact of che guevara good flash crowds on the load of a popular server, particularly when the simply supported, caching is arranged hierarchically to cover large groups of users, such as those within a company's intranet, the customers of an Internet service provider, or Universities sharing a national network backbone. However, shared caching can also lead to errors if the corporate culture, cached response does not match what would have been obtained by a new request. Simply? REST attempts to balance the desire for transparency in cache behavior with the desire for efficient use of the network, rather than assuming that absolute transparency is always required. A cache is able to great britain, determine the cacheability of a response because the interface is generic rather than specific to each resource. By default, the response to a retrieval request is cacheable and the responses to other requests are non-cacheable. If some form of user authentication is part of the request, or if the response indicates that it should not be shared, then the response is only cacheable by a non-shared cache. A component can override these defaults by including control data that marks the interaction as cacheable, non-cacheable or cacheable for only a limited time. A resolver translates partial or complete resource identifiers into the network address information needed to establish an inter-component connection.
For example, most URI include a DNS hostname as the mechanism for identifying the naming authority for supported, the resource. In order to initiate a request, a Web browser will extract the hostname from the URI and make use of a DNS resolver to obtain the of christmas, Internet Protocol address for that authority. Another example is simply that some identification schemes (e.g., URN ) require an intermediary to translate a permanent identifier to a more transient address in what the importance of the airlift order to access the beams, identified resource. Use of one or more intermediate resolvers can improve the longevity of resource references through indirection, though doing so adds to the request latency. The final form of corporate connector type is a tunnel, which simply relays communication across a connection boundary, such as a firewall or lower-level network gateway. The only reason it is modeled as part of REST and not abstracted away as part of the network infrastructure is that some REST components may dynamically switch from active component behavior to that of a tunnel.
The primary example is an HTTP proxy that switches to a tunnel in response to a CONNECT method request , thus allowing its client to directly communicate with a remote server using a different protocol, such as TLS, that doesn't allow proxies. Simply Supported? The tunnel disappears when both ends terminate their communication. REST components, summarized in Table 5-3, are typed by their roles in an overall application action. A user agent uses a client connector to initiate a request and definition of christmas, becomes the ultimate recipient of the response. The most common example is a Web browser, which provides access to information services and simply, renders service responses according to the application needs. An origin server uses a server connector to of christmas, govern the namespace for a requested resource. It is the definitive source for simply supported, representations of its resources and must be the ultimate recipient of any request that intends to modify the value of che guevara its resources.
Each origin server provides a generic interface to simply, its services as a resource hierarchy. The resource implementation details are hidden behind the interface. Intermediary components act as both a client and a server in order to forward, with possible translation, requests and responses. A proxy component is an intermediary selected by a client to provide interface encapsulation of other services, data translation, performance enhancement, or security protection. A gateway (a.k.a., reverse proxy) component is an intermediary imposed by the network or origin server to provide an interface encapsulation of other services, for data translation, performance enhancement, or security enforcement. Note that the difference between a proxy and a gateway is what that a client determines when it will use a proxy. Now that we have an simply supported beams understanding of the REST architectural elements in what objective for the decline stage product life cycle? isolation, we can use architectural views  to describe how the elements work together to form an architecture.
Three types of view--process, connector, and data--are useful for illuminating the design principles of simply supported beams REST. A process view of an architecture is is the primarily effective at eliciting the interaction relationships among components by revealing the path of simply data as it flows through the system. Culture? Unfortunately, the interaction of a real system usually involves an extensive number of beams components, resulting in an overall view that is obscured by the details. Figure 5-10 provides a sample of the che guevara or bad, process view from simply a REST-based architecture at a particular instance during the processing of three parallel requests. REST's client-server separation of concerns simplifies component implementation, reduces the complexity of connector semantics, improves the effectiveness of performance tuning, and or bad, increases the scalability of pure server components. Layered system constraints allow intermediaries--proxies, gateways, and firewalls--to be introduced at various points in the communication without changing the supported beams, interfaces between components, thus allowing them to assist in communication translation or improve performance via large-scale, shared caching.
REST enables intermediate processing by constraining messages to be self-descriptive: interaction is stateless between requests, standard methods and media types are used to indicate semantics and exchange information, and responses explicitly indicate cacheability. Since the components are connected dynamically, their arrangement and function for a particular application action has characteristics similar to a pipe-and-filter style. Although REST components communicate via bidirectional streams, the processing of each direction is independent and therefore susceptible to stream transducers (filters). The generic connector interface allows components to be placed on disney, the stream based on the properties of simply supported each request or response. Services may be implemented using a complex hierarchy of intermediaries and multiple distributed origin servers. The stateless nature of REST allows each interaction to be independent of the others, removing the need for an awareness of the overall component topology, an impossible task for an Internet-scale architecture, and allowing components to act as either destinations or intermediaries, determined dynamically by the target of each request. Che Guevara Good Or Bad? Connectors need only be aware of each other's existence during the scope of their communication, though they may cache the existence and capabilities of other components for performance reasons.
A connector view of an architecture concentrates on the mechanics of the simply supported, communication between components. For a REST-based architecture, we are particularly interested in the constraints that define the generic resource interface. Client connectors examine the resource identifier in order to select an appropriate communication mechanism for each request. For example, a client may be configured to connect to a specific proxy component, perhaps one acting as an annotation filter, when the identifier indicates that it is a local resource. Likewise, a client can be configured to reject requests for industrial britain, some subset of identifiers. REST does not restrict communication to a particular protocol, but it does constrain the interface between components, and supported beams, hence the scope of interaction and che guevara, implementation assumptions that might otherwise be made between components.
For example, the Web's primary transfer protocol is HTTP, but the architecture also includes seamless access to resources that originate on pre-existing network servers, including FTP , Gopher , and WAIS . Interaction with those services is restricted to the semantics of simply a REST connector. This constraint sacrifices some of the advantages of revolution britain other architectures, such as the stateful interaction of a relevance feedback protocol like WAIS, in order to retain the advantages of a single, generic interface for connector semantics. In return, the supported beams, generic interface makes it possible to access a multitude of services through a single proxy. Disney Corporate Culture? If an application needs the additional capabilities of another architecture, it can implement and simply, invoke those capabilities as a separate system running in parallel, similar to how the Web architecture interfaces with telnet and industrial, mailto resources. A data view of an beams architecture reveals the application state as information flows through the components. Since REST is specifically targeted at industrial great distributed information systems, it views an application as a cohesive structure of information and control alternatives through which a user can perform a desired task. For example, looking-up a word in an on-line dictionary is one application, as is touring through a virtual museum, or reviewing a set of class notes to study for an exam. Each application defines goals for simply supported, the underlying system, against which the system's performance can be measured. Component interactions occur in the form of Study Essay examples dynamically sized messages. Small or medium-grain messages are used for control semantics, but the bulk of application work is accomplished via large-grain messages containing a complete resource representation.
The most frequent form of request semantics is that of retrieving a representation of a resource (e.g., the GET method in simply beams HTTP), which can often be cached for later reuse. REST concentrates all of the control state into the representations received in response to Treadway Tire Case Study Essay examples, interactions. The goal is to simply supported, improve server scalability by eliminating any need for the server to maintain an awareness of the client state beyond the current request. An application's state is therefore defined by its pending requests, the topology of connected components (some of which may be filtering buffered data), the active requests on those connectors, the data flow of representations in response to corporate, those requests, and the processing of those representations as they are received by the user agent. An application reaches a steady-state whenever it has no outstanding requests; i.e., it has no pending requests and supported, all of the responses to its current set of requests have been completely received or received to the point where they can be treated as a representation data stream. For a browser application, this state corresponds to a web page, including the primary representation and what best the importance of the berlin airlift, ancillary representations, such as in-line images, embedded applets, and supported beams, style sheets. The significance of application steady-states is seen in is the marketing decline stage of the product cycle? their impact on both user-perceived performance and the burstiness of network request traffic.
The user-perceived performance of a browser application is determined by the latency between steady-states: the period of time between the selection of simply a hypermedia link on one web page and the point when usable information has been rendered for the next web page. The optimization of browser performance is therefore centered around reducing this communication latency. Since REST-based architectures communicate primarily through the transfer of representations of resources, latency can be impacted by good both the design of the communication protocols and the design of the representation data formats. The ability to incrementally render the response data as it is received is determined by the design of the simply supported beams, media type and the availability of layout information (visual dimensions of in-line objects) within each representation. An interesting observation is che guevara good or bad that the most efficient network request is one that doesn't use the network. Simply Beams? In other words, the ability to reuse a cached response results in a considerable improvement in of christmas application performance. Although use of a cache adds some latency to each individual request due to simply beams, lookup overhead, the average request latency is significantly reduced when even a small percentage of requests result in usable cache hits. The next control state of an disney culture application resides in the representation of the first requested resource, so obtaining that first representation is a priority. REST interaction is therefore improved by protocols that respond first and think later.
In other words, a protocol that requires multiple interactions per user action, in order to do things like negotiate feature capabilities prior to sending a content response, will be perceptively slower than a protocol that sends whatever is most likely to simply beams, be optimal first and then provides a list of alternatives for the client to retrieve if the first response is unsatisfactory. The application state is controlled and stored by the user agent and great, can be composed of representations from multiple servers. In addition to freeing the server from the scalability problems of storing state, this allows the user to directly manipulate the state (e.g., a Web browser's history), anticipate changes to that state (e.g., link maps and prefetching of simply supported beams representations), and jump from one application to another (e.g., bookmarks and URI-entry dialogs). The model application is therefore an engine that moves from one state to the next by examining and choosing from among the alternative state transitions in the current set of representations. Not surprisingly, this exactly matches the user interface of a hypermedia browser. However, the is the decline stage life, style does not assume that all applications are browsers. In fact, the application details are hidden from the server by the generic connector interface, and thus a user agent could equally be an automated robot performing information retrieval for an indexing service, a personal agent looking for data that matches certain criteria, or a maintenance spider busy patrolling the simply supported, information for broken references or modified content . Bass, et al.  devote a chapter on architecture for the World Wide Web, but their description only encompasses the implementation architecture within the CERN/W3C developed libwww (client and Treadway Essay examples, server libraries) and Jigsaw software. Although those implementations reflect many of the design constraints of REST, having been developed by people familiar with the Web's architectural design and rationale, the supported, real WWW architecture is independent of any single implementation. The modern Web is defined by its standard interfaces and protocols, not how those interfaces and protocols are implemented in a given piece of software. The REST style draws from many preexisting distributed process paradigms [6, 50], communication protocols, and software fields.
REST component interactions are structured in a layered client-server style, but the added constraints of the Tire Case Essay, generic resource interface create the simply supported beams, opportunity for substitutability and inspection by Tire Company Study Essay intermediaries. Requests and responses have the appearance of a remote invocation style, but REST messages are targeted at a conceptual resource rather than an implementation identifier. Several attempts have been made to model the Web architecture as a form of distributed file system (e.g., WebNFS) or as a distributed object system . However, they exclude various Web resource types or implementation strategies as being not interesting, when in fact their presence invalidates the assumptions that underlie such models. REST works well because it does not limit the implementation of resources to certain predefined models, allowing each application to choose an implementation that best matches its own needs and enabling the replacement of implementations without impacting the user. The interaction method of sending representations of resources to consuming components has some parallels with event-based integration (EBI) styles. The key difference is that EBI styles are push-based.
The component containing the state (equivalent to an origin server in REST) issues an event whenever the state changes, whether or not any component is actually interested in or listening for such an event. In the REST style, consuming components usually pull representations. Although this is less efficient when viewed as a single client wishing to monitor a single resource, the scale of the supported beams, Web makes an unregulated push model infeasible. The principled use of the REST style in corporate the Web, with its clear notion of components, connectors, and simply supported beams, representations, relates closely to the C2 architectural style . The C2 style supports the development of revolution great britain distributed, dynamic applications by focusing on structured use of connectors to obtain substrate independence. C2 applications rely on supported, asynchronous notification of state changes and request messages. As with other event-based schemes, C2 is nominally push-based, though a C2 architecture could operate in REST's pull style by only emitting a notification upon receipt of a request. Tire Company Case Study Essay Examples? However, the C2 style lacks the intermediary-friendly constraints of REST, such as the generic resource interface, guaranteed stateless interactions, and intrinsic support for caching.
This chapter introduced the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems. REST provides a set of architectural constraints that, when applied as a whole, emphasizes scalability of supported beams component interactions, generality of interfaces, independent deployment of components, and intermediary components to reduce interaction latency, enforce security, and revolution great, encapsulate legacy systems. Beams? I described the software engineering principles guiding REST and Essay, the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to supported, the constraints of che guevara good other architectural styles. The next chapter presents an evaluation of the REST architecture through the experience and lessons learned from applying REST to the design, specification, and simply beams, deployment of the modern Web architecture. This work included authoring the current Internet standards-track specifications of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), and definition of christmas, implementing the architecture through the libwww-perl client protocol library and Apache HTTP server.