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Accomplishments of pierre trudeau

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Harlot: A Revealing Look at the Arts of Persuasion. Harlot is an interactive digital magazine dedicated to trudeau exploring rhetoric in everyday life. We invite relevant and engaging contributions from diverse perspectives and in multiple media. Some rights reserved. By providing a history and context for emojis, this essay argues that they are more a means of The Politics Purchase Essay, creative graphic expression than a threat to alphabetic literacy, and that their study contributes to a re-materilaizing of literacy.

The essay acknowledges that in of pierre trudeau some instances emojis do help to clarify the intent or tone of alphabetic writing, but emojis, like alphabetic writing, are culturally and contextually bound. Emojis expand expression and in doing so open themselves to re-appropriation, interpretation and even misinterpretation, along with the affirming possibilities of artistic creation. We were just nerds, goofing around (Fahlman qtd. in Garber). So goes Scott Fahlman's explanation for the birth of the emoticon, the simple combination of punctuation that signals the intentions behind a writer's words. In 1982, a group of Carnegie Mellon researchers were using an online bulletin board to trade quips about what might happen if their building's elevator cable were cut, when they realized that an outsider to the conversation might take them seriously (Garber). They developed the iconic :) to make sure everyone else was in on the joke. And the rest, as the saying goes, was history.

Or were the emoticons word-devil spawn? Did they constitute an attack on the study of communication through movements, and expressions, language, yet another instance of the erasure of language (MacDonald) what James Billington, the Librarian of Congress, described as the slow destruction of the basic unit of human thought — the sentence (qtd. in Dillon)? While emoticons and emoji, their more elaborate cousins (Wortham), might be evidence of an apparent [generational] decline in young people's vocabulary (Wilson and Gove 265), I'd like to demonstrate that they share more with traditional writing than an alphabet-phile might assume, including origins rooted in the visual and accomplishments of pierre trudeau, the mercantile, as well as an deforestation consequences ancient struggle with communicative unctuousness. Emojis are not so much destroying linguistic traditions as they are stretching them, opening a gateway to a non-discursive language of new possibility and trudeau, even responding to John Trimbur's call for a rematerializing of literacy (263), by reminding us that writing always had and Ethical Essay, always will have a visual component mediated by a material world. The narratives of emojis, then, are the narratives of of pierre, writing itself. Scholars have called out the the study of communication movements, stances, myth of alphabetic literacy's transparency as a denial of accomplishments, writing's materiality and The Concept of Staying in Hamlet Shakespeare Essay, the role played by larger systems of of pierre, production (Trimbur), as well as an assertion of survival in business, Western superiority (Miller and trudeau, Lupton). In response to this need to materialize writing, I wish to provide context for emojis, complicating these tiny stamps of humanity and unpacking some of the alphabetic resistances to them so as to position them as an emerging visual language of play, whose study will help us to think more visually and materially about writing and encourage us to experiment with the ludic potentiality of a non-discursive form. Almost a decade after the Carnegie Mellon invention of emoticons, emojis (translated as picture characters) emerged in Japan, consisting of the study and expressions, both more fleshed-out versions of emoticons (#9786; instead of accomplishments of pierre trudeau, :) for example), as well as a pantheon of objects, activities, and events ranging from cactuses to cash. In this respect, emoji resemble petroglyphs, petrographs and pictographs—precursors to writing systems, whose meanings and of communication through stances, gestures, and expressions, purposes are debated to accomplishments of pierre trudeau this day. Emoji origins in teen and commercial culture are indisputable. In an Purchase effort to increase his mobile phone company's teenage market share, DoCoMo employee Shigetaka Kurita collaborated with others to accomplishments of pierre trudeau develop emoji characters based on manga art and Japanese Kanji characters.

But senders and recipients had to use the same network in survival in business order for the characters to display properly (Marsden). Faced with the of pierre material constraints of the cell phone and their interest in having the networks communicate with one another, Japanese programmers reached consensus on computer codes for the emoji, which are now part of all mobile web and to Utalitarianism, mail services in Japan. In the mid-2000's, as Google and accomplishments of pierre trudeau, Apple realized the broad appeal of the playful icons, they brought them to their Unicode Consortium ( Hitchhikers Guide fans! Think: real-life Babel fish) which establishes standards for the global display of symbols, and in 2010 standardized the codes for Essay, 722 emoji. This move to standardize resembled the efforts of Louis the trudeau XIV to standardize typographic forms through the commissioning of the roman du roi typeface, which relied on an Academy of Sciences committee to map the typeface onto a grid, as opposed to previous typefaces which had evolved over time and which were hand cut. Trimbur sees the Sun King's commissioning of the committee as an attempt to embody the authority of the deforestation consequences scientific method and bureaucratic power (266). Individual engravers would no longer have an of pierre trudeau influence on the emerging shapes and the sameness of every printed letter would be guaranteed through its adherence to consequences a mathematically reproducible template. Similarly the move to Unicode embodies and secures technological control and commercial power. On the one hand the use of a uniform code ensures that what senders send is what recipients see, but senders and users must both have the hardware (usually a smartphone, though emojis can be displayed on email) as well as access to accomplishments of pierre trudeau an emoji keyboard if they wish to send.

Moreover, individuals interested in The Politics of the Essay having an emoji added to Unicode must write a petition that the Consortium reviews. Petitioners must demonstrate that there is a need for a particular emoji. According to accomplishments trudeau Mark Davis, president of the Unicode Consortium, the emoji must be in survival the wild already (qtd. in Brownlee) before it can be accepted into the domesticating control of the Consortium, which will translate it so that it can be read across devices and delivery systems. King Louis's project was doomed to fail, as anyone who has ever sat toying with dozens of typeface choices can attest, and in a somewhat simlar way, the Consortium's standardizing capacity has its limits: emojis, too, have fonts and do not display in exactly the same way across devices. Moreover, emojis continue to trudeau thrive in the wild, with users sending a variety of images that are not necessarily Unicode-approved. Despite their unabashedly whimsical sides and adolescent appeal, emojis were designed from a pragmatic, efficacious commercial perspective.

Emojis allowed users to continue sending pictorial representations (whose use had been on survival in business, the rise prior to emojis) without increasing message size. Bandwidth did not need to increase and of pierre trudeau, speed was maintained as each emoji counted as only a single character. In Business? Fueled largely by the constraints of texting, emojis supplant alphabetic language, allowing dexterous users greater speed and accomplishments of pierre, ease than alphabetic text and encouraging those who think aphoristically of a picture's worth. In this replacing of text, emojis may be perceived as participating in the protracted struggle between the pictorial and the linguistic that T.J. Mitchell observed, the relationship of strategies in business, subversion, in trudeau which language or imagery looks into its own heart and finds lurking there its opposite number (43). At their least poetic, most commercial edges, emojis represent an expedient compression of space and time driven by a desire to save money. The Study Of Communication Through Body Gestures, Is Called:? They were born of a need to conserve space, which translated into time, both of which were expressed in terms of material value.

In occupying fewer bytes, emojis made communication faster and cheaper for purveyor and consumer alike. And for this they got a bad rap. Cheeky though they appear, emojis did not initiate this movement toward faster, more efficient communication. Cuneiform, the first writing, is commonly attributed to accounting systems designed by the Sumerians, in what is now modern Iraq, to track business transactions. We can imagine ancient poets and priests, even before Plato's famous Phaedrus invective against the memory-dissolving threat of trudeau, writing, turning away in disdain from early cuneiform and its mercenary mission and cold war us history, what Craig Stroupe describes as a presumed rhetorical instrumentalism (629). In the modern era, industry routinely races for accomplishments of pierre trudeau, faster communication—consider technologies such as the telegraph or the many shorthand systems, which, BTW, is how emojis often are described. All communications—visual and strategies in business, alphabetic—serves multiple purposes, which are sometimes derailed purposefully, through re-appropriation and re-design and re-imagination, and trudeau, sometimes derailed by of communication through stances, gestures, is called:, accident, happenstance and the emergence of new forms. Few of trudeau, us now would recognize Sir Isaac Pitman's shorthand notation system of 1837: In their heydays, Pitman's approach and other shorthand systems such as Gregg's were understood by a small subset of professionals who had the war us history proper training in them. They sped up the work of business communication while also relegating that efficient knowledge to a small subset of accomplishments of pierre, individuals formally educated in the discourse.

Emojis are more broadly intellectually accessible than shorthand systems and the study through body movements, gestures, and expressions, are typically acquired in a post-Fordist fashion, through informal networks rather than systematic training. Only readers trained in Pitman notation would recognize the system's lines and squiggles; by contrast, readers without formal emoji training would recognize #9786;. Accomplishments Of Pierre? I will return to this issue of recognition and iconicity momentarily. I don't wish to through body stances, gestures, and expressions is called: overstate the universality of emojis, which, like any communication, is both materially and accomplishments of pierre, culturally bound. Though emoji discourse is learned casually through use, only those who have access to the technologies that reproduce them (smart phones, for the most part) can use them. In this regard, emojis heighten our awareness of what Trimbur refers to as the materiality of literacy, a recognition that the production of writing is not a disembodied activity of pure cognitive processes but is instead a physical activity that produces a physical product of visual material considerations including page (or screen) size and dimension, font style and size, space and other rhetorical considerations of visual design. Trimbur emphasizes the role of The Concept of Staying True in Hamlet by William Shakespeare Essay, typography in accomplishments reifying this materiality and links it to rhetoric's fifth canon, delivery (263). As with a consideration of typography, a consideration of emoji encourages us to re-visualize writing and to think about how it is circulated, how it performs work in a world of class, race, gender, cultural and age relations.

Most recently, the absence of racially diverse emojis( sparked debates on Twitter and Instagram and a Do Something petition to Apple to add more racially diverse characters. The Apple keyboard, as the BBC reported, had numerous white faces and in business, only two that appeared to be Asian and none that were black (Kelion). The call for more diverse emoji was dismissed by accomplishments trudeau, some in the blogosphere, particularly when Miley Cyrus attempted a Twitter campaign to increase emoji diversity, but at the core of the debate was the construction of race by one of the fastest-growing modes of communication. Consequences? White again was being represented as a universal, non-raced race. Oxford University Research Fellow Bernie Hogan observed that Emoji exist first and foremost as a way to augment texts with clear expressive power. If they restrict the sort of people who are used in the images it restricts users' expressive power (qtd. in Kelion). Trudeau? The Apple keyboard, in The Concept of Staying by William Shakespeare other words, was limiting the accomplishments of pierre available means of expression, forcing its rhetors into a bleached discourse that threatens rhetorical agency. Material invisibility—even in—especially in—a seemingly playful arena—diminishes everyone.

Whether they were persuaded by the racial ethos of the petition or more inspired by the study body gestures, is called:, the fact that 92% of African Americans own a cell phone and 56#37; own a smart phone (Smith), (constituting a powerful consumer base), is impossible to say, but Apple management has pledged to racially diversify its emoji options. It may also be recognizing that other purveyors are providing diverse representations and acknowledging a more complete racial reality. Oju, an African company aimed at liberating Africans from digital exclusion has developed an ojus app for Google, using the tagline everyone smiles in the same language and featuring brown-toned faces (Ouja Africa). Accomplishments Of Pierre? So while emoji may be coming to reflect a fuller racial discourse, Apple's initial contentment with its limited representations, as well as the dismissals of the calls to diversify its glyphs, suggest that racialized discourse continues and demands perpetual challenge in every arena of exchange. Who and what we represent and recognize reflects and creates our values and lived realities. Small though they may be, emojis resonate with populist power: Over 300 million images are shared daily by the study of communication through stances, is called:, Facebook users; 45 million are posted through Instagram (Rock). For some individuals, emojis provide a necessary corrective to the potential clumsiness forced by trudeau, technological delivery. Japanese author Motoko Tamamuro explains that the Japanese tend to imply things instead of explicitly expressing them, so reading the situation and sensing the mood are very important. We take extra care to consider other people's feelings when writing correspondence, and that's why emoji became so useful in email and text to introduce more feeling into a brevitised form of The Politics of the Purchase Essay, communication (qtd. in trudeau Marsden).

Tamamuro's concerns are similar to those early English-language adopters of emoticons—wary of strategies in business, language's missteps and accomplishments trudeau, interested in closing as many gaps between intended and received communication. Emojis, like the earlier emoticons, sometimes are aimed at Louisiana Purchase, helping readers to interpret all the kinds of language that linguist John Haiman categorizes as un-plain speaking, including sarcasm, simple politeness, hints, understatements, euphemisms, code, sententiousness, gobbledygook, posturing, bantering jocularity, affectation and accomplishments, ritual or phatic language. Through Movements, Stances, Gestures, Is Called:? Emojis are an attempt to insure that the message we intend is the message that is received, that we can shore up the fissures, the lacuna, the gaps, disconnects, discordances and plain old misunderstandings that inevitably emerge when one brain tries to externalize its thoughts for another through words. Emojis inherit a long tradition of enlisting visuality to accomplishments of pierre do so. In the late 1800's Alcanter de Brahm proposed that writers use a point d'ironie which would look like a backwards question mark. I sent this trivia to a colleague in the French department, who noted, with his own ironic and somewhat repulsed tone, The whole point of irony is that it is not pointed out. His comment made me realize that some of the survival in business contentions about emoji are disagreements over where we stand with this phenomenon of unplain language.

On the one hand, there are writers, readers and of pierre, contexts that call for deforestation, plain language, which, according to accomplishments of pierre trudeau Haiman is the Approach to Utalitarianism direction that American language is moving towards. Emoji could work in service of such a move, removing guesswork from what it is that the writer intended. As a researcher reading a transcript, I might very well appreciate understanding that the Carnegie Mellon engineers were joking about a cable failure. In a different context, though, emojis could be at best annoying or even confusing. If I am in a crowded theater when a fire erupts, I do not wish to look up and see a sign that says, EXIT #9786; or even EXIT #9785;. I feel the same way about the happy and sad smile faces that adorned my Rhode Island tax return, though I imagine the person who composed it assumed taxpayers might be charmed to see #9785; after you owe this amount. Or perhaps designers felt that the faces would visually reinforce what filers needed to do; numeric and alphabetic explanations were insufficient. When I filed and saw the #9785; telling me that I owed money, the accomplishments of pierre glyph neither clarified nor charmed; it simply sat as unappreciated adornment whose sad face served up a visual poke in the eye. Like most readers, I inhabit multiple interpretive contexts.

If I'm about to strategies swallow Advil, I want to know, with certainty, whether I should take it with food or not, and accomplishments of pierre trudeau, how long I should wait before taking more. If I'm reading a poem about someone who fell in love with an engineer, though, I am more interested in experiencing language and seeing where it might lead my heart, mind and memory. I take my emojis the same way. Emojis occupy a both/and position. It is most likely that emojis—as with all attempts to stabilize—result in some magnanimous efforts producing both magnificent failures and stunning successes.

So while some composers use emojis to clarify, others use them to mystify and neither necessarily succeeds all the deforestation time, because, at the end of the of pierre day, humans are what they are: wonderfully complex, connected and individuated creatures, forever striving to reach one another. Unlike the more abstract shorthand systems, emoji images are more recognizable and so would seem to be a more democratic form of The Concept of Staying True in Hamlet Essay, shorthand. But communication is never that simple. Even if we were able to remove emojis from their material constraints—which we cannot—we would still encounter emojis as the smiling, frowning, winking poster children of of pierre trudeau, Of Grammatology , challenging both the phonocentrism and logocentrism of to Utalitarianism Essay, de Saussure because they exemplify non-phonetic writing while signifying both absence and of pierre, presence. History? To receive a text with an emoji is to have the sense of presence, made more immediate, more palpable because of our technological understanding that the writer has just sent a message. Emojis, like alphabetic words, always point somewhere else. But—and here is where we might part company with Derrida—like alphabetic language, they are useful in expressing something other than or beyond metacommentary nevertheless. Letters get received, rescued from accomplishments trudeau their purloined places, and emojis, too, hit their marks, but in broad clouds, like electrons hovering around a nucleus of meaning. More of our dear readers recognize #9786; as a smileyface than readers would have recognized Pitman’s shorthand · as the, probably even in Pitman’s day.

These readers, however, do not necessarily agree on its signification. The apparent iconicity of the #9786; is debatable. #9786; does not represent a word. It represents a range of of Staying Essay, possible sentiments, including I like what you just said; I like you; I am happy, etc. Moreover, smiling itself is culturally dependent. The emoji is not insulated from the maddening or, some would say delightful soap-bar quality of all communication. Emoji Cro-Magnon might have intended the smiley first, foremost and ONLY to clarify the tone of a previous expression so that readers understood that the trudeau expression was not to of communication through stances, gestures, and expressions be taken seriously, as in I'm joking here, yet it has since been used to express a range of other sentiments, and may or may not be used to clarify the tone of trudeau, a previous expression. The emoji #9786; may point us in the direction of lightheartedness, but even among speakers from similar cultures, irony and survival strategies in business, sarcasm are always possibilities. As ever, context is king.

In their desire to of pierre shore up the linguistic fissures, emoji users find themselves sharing a lament of writers across time and cultures. Survival Strategies In Business? We might recall T. S. Eliot bemoaning the accomplishments shabby equipment, always deteriorating available to the poet in strategies East Coker, or Italo Calvino observing that The struggle of of pierre trudeau, literature is in fact a struggle to escape from the confines of language; it stretches out from the utmost limits of what can be said; what stirs literature is the call and attraction of what is not in the dictionary (qtd. in Louisiana Essay Gabriele 59). We can juxtapose these frustrations with those of Shyam Sundar who finds inadequacy in language: [t]ext as a medium is particularly dull when it comes to expressing emotions (qtd. in Wortham). While Sundar's observation is of pierre expressed neither as a poem nor as a deep meditation on art, at deforestation consequences, its core, it joins with Eliot and Calvino in its exasperation with the limitations of the alphabetic language. But Sundar is of pierre trudeau neither poet nor novelist. He is co-director of the Media Effects Research Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University and his solution for True, escaping the language prison is neither poetry nor prose. Instead, he offers that Emoticons open the door a little, but emoji opens it even further (qtd. in Wortham). Admittedly, Sundar's reference to dull text might be enough to trudeau make a humanist or any lover of literature Anyone who has ever wept or laughed or been stirred to action after reading would surely want scare quotes around dull.

For our entire lives, texts have been anything but dull. (Well, maybe a few.) But to Ethical Approach be fair to Sundar, he's referring not so much to trudeau Shakespeare as he is to the quotidian texts sent by phone, the dozens or hundreds or thousands of messages sent every day by individuals when they are walking or waiting at the dentist or sitting in class or driving down the of Staying True Shakespeare Interstate, often in accomplishments front of me. He is, in a sense, seeking to liven the language of the everyday. Sundar is reflecting on quotidian language that does not fly in the rarified air of the deforestation published poem or squat on a marble museum pedestal. He wants to change the register of the daily exchange of Every Texter. If we accept his solution to the dreariness of the everyday communication, then the register with which we read emoji changes. For a brief Derridean moment, a friend’s emoji-graced message, texted in the middle of the day, constitutes an always-in place meditation on words’ shortcomings, a challenge to the limits of what we think is fundamental. That is, from the earliest age we are taught that to of pierre trudeau know the ABC’s of X, Y or Z is to possess a foundational knowledge. We hail the letter as both the heart and the beginning of all understanding. The Study Through Stances,? Placed in accomplishments this context, the sending of a , in its very presence, suggests “the ABC’s of the matter are and Louisiana Essay, always will be unfit for the task of communicating what I have to say to you.” There is more to emoji than meets the glance. At the accomplishments of pierre trudeau moment, these airy icons may prevent such a heavy interpretation. Body Movements, Stances, And Expressions? But it may be worth bearing in mind both that the accomplishments of pierre trudeau sender of an emoji we cannot quite fathom is indeed attempting to express the inexpressible, to say that there is something he or she thinks or feels that is beyond the Approach to Utalitarianism Essay smooth gloss of letters.

And if we can at least sense that sentiment coming from someone who is trying to accomplishments reach us, we can move a bit closer to in business them—whether they are family or friends or students or even administrators. The convenience aspect of emojis may prevent them from accomplishments trudeau being embraced as expressions of care. We cannot deny the speed that emoji usage affords. It is in business much easier, for Nimble and Chubby Thumb alike, to press than to use a cellular phone to of pierre trudeau type out all of the strategies in business words, including a capital letter, in My airplane is arriving. Indeed, the debut of accomplishments trudeau, this airplane arrival emoji, one of 270 emoji newly approved by the Unicode Consortium, prompted New Yorker writer Ian Crouch to observe, only slightly tongue in cheek: it's difficult to imagine how we lived without [certain emoji characters] for so long. Within specific contexts, emojis offer instantaneous connection.

But this assumed instantaneousness, which we will complicate momentarily, creates another liability for the maligned emoji. Because of emoji ease, receivers of emoji text may take offense at receiving instead of a note, sharing the sentiment of President Obama who expressed relief that his daughter had chosen an the study through body movements, stances, gestures, and expressions is called: alphabetic path to accomplishments trudeau his affection: Malia, to her credit, wrote a letter to me for Father's Day, which was obviously much more important to me than if she had texted an history emoji, or whatever those things are (qtd. in accomplishments of pierre trudeau Walker). So the ease and speed of emojis have caused them to war us history be rejected as acceptable conveyers of heart-felt affection. Evaluated outside of an efficiency-driven context, moved from the catching of planes to the capturing of hearts, emojis would seem to occupy shakier ground, their purposes less certain, their motives less pure. The daughter who casually pastes instead of reflecting, drafting and revising a heart-felt letter to her father in trudeau a callous quest for Beloved Child Points surely does not deserve the badge. But then neither does an absent-minded I love you or a letter cribbed from strategies in business a Lifetime Channel movie. Words, in other words, do not guarantee reflection or care or authenticity. And I say this begrudgingly, as someone who, in accomplishments the event of Approach to Utalitarianism Essay, a fire, would save her trunkful of letters before dashing back in to rescue Great Grandmother’s cut glass candy dish. But I say this also as someone who has dashed off a lazy that's great. (3 . indicating more effort than a lackadaisical!) in accomplishments of pierre response to survival a friend's happy news. Of Pierre Trudeau? The medium is of Staying True Shakespeare not necessarily the message; context counts.

Without truly knowing the accomplishments of pierre sender's abilities and proclivities, it is the study of communication through body movements, gestures, and expressions difficult to judge the sentiment behind the purpose. Perhaps one day composition students will add another element to their rhetorical analyses of audience, purpose and message; perhaps one day, as they zoom about space on air-powered vespas they will puzzle the time a composer spent on task as well. But until thenno, even after then, we might do well to examine what emojis do offer, in the here and accomplishments of pierre, admittedly very now. Despite the very contemporary, post-Fordist zeitgeist into survival strategies in business, which the emoji has popped, it nonetheless links us to our earliest efforts at expressionpictograms, petroglyphs and of pierre trudeau, petrographs. John Berger acknowledges the both/and quality of images as the earliest symbols, predecessors to the symbolisms of alphabetic language: What distinguished man from animals was the to Utalitarianism Essay human capacity for symbolic thought, the capacity which was inseparable from the development of language in which words were not mere signals, but signifiers of something other than themselves. Yet the first symbols were animals.

What distinguished men from animals was born of their relationship with them (9). Emojis reiterate this cleaving/joining movement of symbol-making, but they do it in a slightly different way. The earliest emoji symbolsexpressive faceswere most directly representational (or, as a linguist would note, iconic), in much the same way that early cave paintings featured animals. Accomplishments Trudeau? In this way, emojis participate in one of humanity's most fundamental processes: [N]o human society has ever existed without the creative externalization of internal images (Burnett 53). Emojis tap those roots, attempting to link us across time and cultures to all others who would communicate. A monolingual speaker of English is more likely to understand a Finnish friend’s than kolkkous. Emojis operate at the level of the non-discursive, potentially filling a gap that separates even speakers of the same language. They inhabit a niche that is beyond the reach of alphabetic text and consequences, push us to engage our visual faculties. Mitchell Stephens has noted that In interpreting the [alphabetic] code we make little use of our natural ability to observe: letters don't smile warmly or look intently (63). For Shyam Sundar, emojis fulfill a human need for non-discursive expression: They play the role that nonverbal communication, like hand gestures, does in conversation but on a cellphone (qtd. in Wortham). Rather than having alphabetic text fly solo in conveying a message, emojis expand the possibilities of what might be expressed.

Since their inception, emojis have been swept up by users with bigger ambitions for them, and in accomplishments of pierre trudeau doing so have made the leap from being users to being rhetors, joining a classic tradition that dates back to Ancient Greece and the study through is called:, Rome. Catherine Hobbs explores a history of rhetoric tied to visualization, explaining that Greco-Roman law cases often depended on accomplishments of pierre, both the presentation of actual objects as well as orators’ abilities to use visual imagery in persuading their audiences (a scar, a wound, a bloody weapon or a toga) [58], a practice that continues in contemporary courtrooms, admittedly for better and for deforestation consequences, worse. The desire to argue effectively, to reach an audience through images and words, has a long and revered history that emojis have joined. The rhetorical tradition, so rightly revered among alphabetic purists, has a visual component. Granted such imageswhether it is the bloodied toga or the tear-streaked cheek, may be instances of Marshall McLuhan's massage, instances of what he described as work[ing] us over (26). Of Pierre Trudeau? But they may also be ways of making a message more accessible, in much the same way that McLuhan himself used the visual imagery in The Medium Is the Massage as a gateway to his own The Medium Is the Message . Some will question how much time is strategies actually saved by using these pinky-nail pictures, and some will also point out that the speed of trudeau, exchange depends on all parties speaking emoji. The Concept In Hamlet By William? If Nimble Thumb punches out , but her friend doesn't understand and spends most of the morning puzzling out the possibilities that might mean, the message is purloined, composed but never received, the plane arriving but forever unmet. No time has been saved; if anything, from an efficiency rather than an exploratory, meditative perspective, time has been wasted.

We are again faced with the importance of context and of discourse. Emoji efficacy works only if all parties speak the same emoji. Of Pierre? Indeed, the creators of emoji's emoticon ancestors shared something with those who find them so threatening: an admirable, if unattainable, desire to stabilize meaning. Moreover, those who use emojis, like writers everywhere, face the bane and delight of trying to The Concept of Staying by William ensure that their intended message is received. Emojis are still in accomplishments their language cradle. Like all discursive and non-discursive language, they too, are culturally and contextually bound. Many American bloggers have puzzled over kadomatsu , an strategies emoji pine decoration, which is more familiar to Japanese writers, who would have seen them placed in homes to welcome a new year.

In instances of cultural disconnect, those unfamiliar with the tradition have sent the accomplishments of pierre trudeau kadomatsu as a sign of disrespect, mistaking it for a middle finger icon. While some images cross cultural borders, not all do. There is always more to an imageeven one as seemingly simple as an Approach emojithan meets the eye. Accomplishments Trudeau? In some instances emojis clarify a writer's intended tone or communicate a simple nugget of information, but mostly they are more useful at contributing to an exploration of expressive possibility that experiences the same kinds of twists, turns and misses of all communication. Consider Fred Benenson's rewritten version of Moby Dick : Benenson's crowd-sourced, Kick-Starter-funded rewritten version of Moby Dick , Emoji Dick , was accepted into the Library of Congress in the study of communication through stances, gestures, is called: February 2013. As with any translation, Benenson's act was creative and subjective. (I still read that opening line as phone, mustache face, sailboat, whale, ok.) Indeed, in an interview Benenson himself acknowledged the many interpretive choices he had to make during the translation: I fully admit that there are large portions of the book that don't make any sense, and there are a number of accomplishments trudeau, reasons for that (qtd. in strategies Goldmark). We could view Benenson's efforts as an of pierre act of literary apostasy, but we could also see it as a work of art in its own right, a brave foray into challenging and unexplored literary waters in search of an elusive and formidable goal.

While at least one Emoji Dick commentator predicted that the of the Essay translation would lead to there seems to be evidence that emojis, if anything are opening paths of communicative exploration. Accomplishments Trudeau? VoidWorks, a Singapore-based-app development studio, has released an in business app that allows users to of pierre emojify any photo by converting pixels into Ethical Approach to Utalitarianism, emoji; emoji poetry is everywhere, and accomplishments of pierre trudeau, there's a Tumblr blog, Narratives in Emoji (http://narrativesinemoji.tumblr.com) that includes emoji translations of Les Miserables , The Titanic and Groundhog Day . Even the lyrics to The Fresh Prince of Bel Air have received their emoji props (Dries). The art world is survival strategies also enjoying the fruits of emoji labors. The Daily Dot, for example, has translated Grant Wood's American Gothic (Alfonso), and accomplishments, the Twitter hashtag#emojiarthistory yields many other similar translations. In these instances the emojis provide a metonymic self-referentiality, replacing one set of iconic symbols with another. These creators have in effect responded to Lawrence Murr’s and James Williams' call to use pictures to 'get the picture' (418). In some instances emoji have themselves been subject to translation, as Justine on YouTube demonstrates in this aural representation of them: In their visuality, their connection to gestures and their digitized form, emojis fit squarely in the social future called for by The New London Group in their 1996 Pedagogy of Multiliteracies.

An international collaborative aimed at Approach, developing new pedagogies that would respond to changing literacies brought by increasing globalization, cultural, social diversity and changes in technology, the group called for a literacy pedagogy of available designs. The New London Group identified six design elements: linguistic; gestural; audio; spatial; visual and the multi-modal that combines these. Accomplishments Of Pierre? Digital communication, increasingly composed on the very small screen, calls for the multi-modal as composers find certain forms of alphabetic composition unwieldy and The Politics of the Louisiana Purchase Essay, unsuitable. In some instances, composers will be able to choose their medium, deciding if what they have to say is best expressed via the page, or if they need the more visual affordances of the computer screen or if they need the accomplishments speed of texting via the tiniest screen of them all. If they choose this tiniest of screens, they may very well conclude that a multi-literate understanding of emojis serves them well. Almost a decade prior to the New London Group manifesto, Murr and Williams would reason that since language shapes our perception of reality it is clear that new concepts of language must be developed with the emergence of the visual culture. Just as the practice of language in Western civilization, as served by speech and memory, was altered by the invention of an alphabet and later its encoding in the study of communication through movements, gestures, and expressions books through monotype, so must it be altered again as a result of the of pierre invention of visual tools (415). Murr and Williams explain the futility and Ethical Essay, even educational cruelty of assigning something like word problems in math as a confusion of brain hemispheres. Science and math are right-brain activities: it does not make sense to emphasize text-based descriptions of accomplishments trudeau, scientific phenomena in general, or mathematical phenomenon in particular (417). They extend the helical logic to the mis-use of computers in the classroom: Here is The Concept in Hamlet a visual tool, an example of hypertelevision, a right-brain preprocessor, a supercharger of graphic information and graphic knowledge, which we have merely reconfigured as a high-tech typewriter! (417).

As antidote, they advocate a need for some attention to accomplishments of pierre trudeau graphic forms, drawing, painting and the visual arts, by raising our consciousness of symbols, by connecting text and graphics through the creation of language networks(418). Perhaps work with emojis will provide an entryway for such balance. Calls for consequences, the visual in the composition classroom have a long history. (See for example, Fleckenstein; George; Kress; Selfe; Stroupe; Yancey). The explorations that have already begun in classrooms are beyond the scope of this essay, but it is worth mentioning that emoji work has the potential to support the same kinds of rich learning experiences we seek in composition classes: a recognition of a multi-literate world; a platform for communicative play, experimentation and creativity; a basis for analysis of cross-cultural communication, identity and representations, and the threads of a re-materialized concept of composing. Emojis have neither destroyed nor rescued words. Accomplishments? We continue, as Megan Garber so beautifully puts it, to MacGuyver our way into language. At the survival end of the day, emojis are just as much a reflection of their creators as words, with just as much potential to express, explore, kvetch and ultimately connect us to accomplishments of pierre others. Though in some instances they supplant words entirely, they also open up new vistas of exchange and of the Louisiana Purchase Essay, creativity.

They are in a sense, the words that got away, and then returned. Accomplishments? As smiles and frowns and jetliners. Lisa Lebduska teaches writing and Purchase Essay, directs the college writing program at Wheaton College in Massachusetts. Focused on the intersections and eruptions among composition, technology and people, her work has appeared in trudeau such publications as WPA Journal , CCC , Narrative , Writing on the Edge , and Technological Ecologies and Sustainability: Methods, Modes, and Assessment . Acknowledgements: I wish to thank the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for deforestation consequences, providing me with summer research support, including those allowing me to work with Hailey Heston (Wheaton Class of 2018), who found the Library of Congress images used here, and whose photoblog serves up many an image for thought. Berger, Jon. Accomplishments Trudeau? Why Look at cold, Animals? About Looking. Accomplishments Of Pierre? New York: Random House, 1988.

1-28. Survival Strategies In Business? Print. Brownlee, John. Where Do Emoji Come From? Co.design. 30 June 2014. Web. 1 July 2014. Burnett, Ron. How Images Think . Cambridge: MIT, 2004. Print. Crouch, Ian. New Emojis, but No Hot Dog.

Culture Desk. The New Yorker 18 June 2014. Web. 20 June 2014. Dillon, Sam. Of Pierre? In Test, Few Students Are Proficient Writers. Deforestation? New York Times . New York Times, 3 April 2008. Web. 20 July 2014.

Dries, Kate. People Have iPhones and accomplishments trudeau, They're Not Afraid to Use Them. Buzzfeed . 5 February 2013. Web. Cold History? 10 June 2014. Eliot, T.S. East Coker . London: Faber and of pierre trudeau, Faber, 1942. Print. Fleckenstein, Kristie S. The Study Through Movements, Is Called:? Inviting Imagery into Our Classrooms. Language and Image in the Reading Writing Classroom: Teaching Vision . Eds. Kristie Fleckenstein, Linda T. Of Pierre Trudeau? Calendrillo and Demetrice Worley.

Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002: 3-26. Print. Gabriele, Thomasina. Italo Calvino: Eros and Language . Fairleigh Dickinson P., 1994. Approach To Utalitarianism Essay? Print. Garber, Megan. How to Tell a Joke on accomplishments, the Internet. The Atlantic Monthly . 24 April 2013. Web. 16 May 2013.

George, Diana. From Analysis to Design: Visual Communication in the Teaching of of communication stances, gestures,, Writing. Accomplishments Of Pierre Trudeau? College Composition and Communication . 54.1. Consequences? (2002): 11-38. Accomplishments Of Pierre Trudeau? Print. Goldfield, Hannah. I Heart Emoji The New Yorker . Ethical? 16 October 2012. Of Pierre Trudeau? Web. 16 May 2013. Goldmark, Alex. Inside the The Politics of the Louisiana Essay Mind That Translated Moby Dick into Emoji New Tech City . 27 February 2014.

Web. 19 March 2014. Haiman, John. Talk Is Cheap: Sarcasm, Alienation and the Evolution of Language . Accomplishments Of Pierre Trudeau? Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. Hobbs, Catherine L. By William? Learning from the Past: Verbal and Visual Literacy in Early Modern Rhetoric and of pierre, Writing Pedagogy. In Fleckenstein, Calendrillo and Worley. 27-44. Rpt. in cold war us history Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Carolyn Handa.

Boston:Bedford/St. Accomplishments Trudeau? Martin’s, 2004: 55-71. Holland, Jessica. Emoji: A Tiny Graphic Can Be Worth a Thousand SMSes. The National . 7 April 2013. Web. 19 March 2014. Kelion, Leo. Apple Seeks Greater Racial Diversity.

BBC News Technology. 26 March 2014. Web. 10 June 2014. Kress, Gunther. Literacy in the New Media Age . New York: Routledge, 2003. Print. MacDonald, Susan Peck. Through Body Movements, Stances, Gestures, And Expressions? The Erasure of Language. College Composition and Communication . 58.4 (2007): 585-625. Print.

Marsden, Rhodri. More Than Words: Are Emoji Dumbing Us Down Or Enriching Our Communication? The Independent . 11 May 2013. Web. 20 June 2014. McLuhan, Marshall. The Medium is the Massage . Accomplishments? New York: Random House, 1967. Print. Miller, J. Abbott and Ellen Lupton.

A Natural History of The Concept True by William Shakespeare Essay, Typography. Bierut, Michael, William Drenttel, Steven Heller, and D.K. Holland, Eds. Looking Closer: Critical Writings on Graphic Design . Vols. Of Pierre Trudeau? 1-2. New York: Allworth, 1994, 1997. 19-25. Body Movements, Stances, Gestures, And Expressions Is Called:? Print. Mitchell, W. J. T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: U. of accomplishments, Chicago P., 1986.

Print. Murr, Lawrence E. and James B. Williams. The Study Body Is Called:? Half-Brained Ideas about Education: Thinking and Learning with Both the Left and Right Brain in a Visual Culture. Leonardo 21.4 (1988): 413-419. Print.

New London Group. A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures. Accomplishments Of Pierre? Harvard Educational Review , 1996 66 (1), 60-92. Survival In Business? Print. Rock, Margaret. From Talk to Telepathy. Mobiledia. 8 July 2013. Web. 1 July 2014. Selfe, Cynthia.

Toward New Media Texts: Taking Up the Challenges of Visual Literacy. In Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition . Eds. Anne Francis Wysocki, Johndan Johnson-Eilola, Cynthia L. Selfe, Geoffrey Sirc. Utah State P, Logan: Utah, 2004:67-110. Print. Smith, Aaron. African Americans and Technology Use: A Demographic Portrait. Pew Research Internet Project. 14 January 2014. Accomplishments Of Pierre Trudeau? Web.

6 June 2014. Stephens, Mitchell. Ethical To Utalitarianism Essay? The Rise of the of pierre trudeau Image, the Fall of the Word . Deforestation? New York: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. Stroupe, Craig.

Visualizing English: Recognizing the Hybrid Literacy of Visual and Verbal Authorship on the Web. College English 62.5 (2000): 607-632. Print. Trimbur, John. Delivering the Message: Typography and the Materiality of Writing. Rhetoric and Composition as Intellectual Work . Ed. Gary Olson.

Carbonddale: Southern Illinois UP, 2002. 188-202. Rpt. in Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Carolyn Handa. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s P., 2004: 260-271. Print. Walker, Hunter. President Obama Is Glad He Didn't Get Emoji for Father's Day.

Business Insider. 17 June 2014. Accomplishments? Web. The Politics Purchase? 2 July 2014. Wilson, James A. and Walter R. Gove. The Intercohort Decline in Verbal Ability: Does It Exist? American Sociological Review . 64.2 (1999): 253-266. JSTOR . Web 20 July 2014.

Wortham, Jenna. Whimsical Texting Icons Get a Shot at Success. 11 December 2011. New York Times . n.p.17 June 2014. Web. Yancey, Kathleen. Accomplishments? Made Not Only in Words: Composition in a New Key. College Composition and Communication . Of Communication Through Body Movements, Stances, Gestures, And Expressions? 56:2 (2004): 297-328. Print. Alfonso, Fernando III. Reinterpreting Classic Works of Art with #emojiarthistory.

The Daily Dot. 13 February 2013. http://www.dailydot.com/culture/emoji-art-history-tate-getty/ Babel Fish Diagram. Hitchhiker Wiki. n.d. Web. 1 July 2014. Cyrus, Miley Ray. RT If You Think There Needs to be an accomplishments trudeau #emojiethnicity Update.

18 December 2012, 7:05 p.m. Tweet. Doctorow, Cory. Cold War Us History? Crowdsourced Translation of Moby-Dick into Emoji. Boing Boing . Boing Boing, 21 September 2009. Web. 20 July 2014. Emoji Fortunes. Accomplishments Of Pierre? Baker’s Blog.

6 June 2013. Emojify: Turn Pixels into Emoji Emoticons to Make Unique Art Images. Appszoom. Heston, Hailey. Light Bulb of Ideas. Wandering, Wondering. 29 March 2014. Web. 14 July 2014. Kahn, Justin.

How to Get Emoji Keyboard on iPad. Approach To Utalitarianism Essay? ipad Notebook: Tips, Thoughts Apps. Web. . Lee, Eric. The Not-Complete Idiot's Guide to: Alternative Handwriting and Shorthand Systems for Dummies. n.d. Web. 10 June 2014. Psar, Ira. The Origins of of pierre, Writing. In Heilbrun Timeline of of the, Art History. New York: The Metroploitan Museum of Art. October 2004.

Web. 14 October 2014. Women Work in of pierre trudeau the Typewriting Department of the National Cash Register in of Staying True Shakespeare Dayton, Ohio, 1902. Library of of pierre trudeau, Congress. Web.

The purpose of all quoted material here is to quote and cite material within the bounds of Ethical Approach Essay, academic fair use. I have attributed all authors and creators, providing a Works Cited. The copyrighted work used in this essay consists of texts, images and one video. In the case of accomplishments trudeau, text, less than one percent of the original has been quoted directly. Cold War Us? Images have been used in their entirety.

The images of of pierre, emoji are commonly used on the internet, nearing the in business status of alphabetic symbols.

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Analysis of John McCain’s health care reform. Accomplishments Of Pierre? Analysis of John McCain’s health care reform. The current US health care system is characterized by the study gestures,, many flaws, a clear indication of its inefficiency as well as ineffectiveness. Unlike in most other industrialized countries the US health care was based on an ‘out of the pocket approach’ and only a small proportion of the total population was covered. Government intervention in as far as provision of health care is accomplishments, concerned was only for the aged, the in Hamlet by William Shakespeare, poor, children and the disabled. Accomplishments? There are over 40 million Americans without medical insurance cover which increased their inaccessibility to medical care.

The care provided is not only the study body stances,, very expensive but also of a poor or bad quality. The poor health care system could be blamed for the increased deaths of otherwise preventable diseases due to the lack of affordability that triggered inaccessibility. (National Academy of accomplishments, Sciences). During the last presidential election the respective candidates had their varying plans on how the system was to be reformed as health care came second from terrorism in terms of issues that needed to be redressed. This paper will focus on McCain’s health care where it will evaluate the implications if his plan was implemented. Need essay sample on Analysis of John McCain’s health care reform ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page.

According to his website, McCain was dedicated to bring reforms in four major aspects or areas. He was to consequences make health care affordable to the Americans, more accessible and diverse so that people’s needs were effectively met. He would also ensure that it was portable so that movement from one job to the next would not affect the medical care choices that people made. Again, he wanted to make it more secure such that retirement did not affect people’s accessibility to health care offered while ensuring that the quality of the care offered was boosted. (McCain and Palin). McCain was for the ideology that the of pierre trudeau, current problems in the US health care would be done away with if competition was embraced rather than if the more government spending was channeled in deforestation consequences, the sector. (Arnst C). In addition to having the accomplishments trudeau, employer based insurance McCain’s health plan was to ensure that all families in the study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures,, America had a direct refundable tax credit in cash. Individuals without employer based cover were to be given $2500 or $5000 a family in order to accomplishments of pierre trudeau counterbalance the cold, costs of health care insurance incurred. By doing this, McCain aimed at increasing the options at the American’s disposal as they would choose the insurance provider best suited for their needs. The $2500 and the $5000 were to trudeau be sent directly to the insurance providers and this would have the effect of reducing unnecessary delays or costs in administration as is the case in the current system.

The current high cost of health care is survival in business, largely blamed on accomplishments of pierre trudeau the administrative costs. Under McCain’s health care plan American families would have the control in as far as health care provision is of Staying True Shakespeare, concerned and the government bureaucracies as well as insurance companies would have an insignificant effect on this. In his plan, McCain also noted that for those whose costs of accomplishments of pierre trudeau, health insurance were less than the credit then the balance would be deposited in expanded health savings account and this would act as a security that would guarantee their future health care provision. McCain’s plan would discourage people from seeking employer based coverage and instead favor individual based cover. Survival Strategies? Companies would benefit as they would have the burden of accomplishments of pierre trudeau, providing health care for survival strategies in business, their employee’s burden off their shoulders. (McCain and Palin). To McCain, if people were well aware of their medical choices then they stood a better position in making concrete decisions on health care. Accomplishments Of Pierre Trudeau? (Josh Bivens and survival strategies in business, Elise Gould). McCain’s Health Savings Account was aimed at making Americans take full control or be in charge of what they actually wanted in of pierre trudeau, as far as their health was concerned. Consequences? To cater for accomplishments of pierre, those with higher risks for instance those with terminal illnesses who risked being discriminated upon in the current system McCain was to establish a Guaranteed Access Plan (GAP).

He would work with the various governors to The Politics Louisiana Purchase the various states in ensuring that each state had the plan that best suited them. Accomplishments Of Pierre Trudeau? (McCain and Palin). Health insurance firms discriminated against deforestation consequences those with chronic illnesses so as to evade liability as they were out to make profits. GAP was to be different from one state to the next as each state was to select the accomplishments, best policy to match their needs or requirements. All in all, the government assistance was to be offered for those below a certain income level to The Concept of Staying True Shakespeare ensure that they also accessed health care across the states. Tax subsidies which supported employer based health insurance were to be eliminated. This arrangement would give the employers a chance to choose whether to continue offering their employees health care cover or not. The employees on the other hand would pay in form of taxes for the employer based health care coverage. Eliminating the current implicit tax subsidy which is offered on employer based coverage would be of a negative impact on most Americans.

It would increase the accomplishments, taxes that individuals paid from their given incomes reducing their disposable incomes significantly. If this plan was implemented then the inequality problem in the accessibility of health care would persist with the haves in in Hamlet by William, the society easily accessing quality health care while the have-nots continued to register increased rates of inaccessibility. (PM Pacific). This would be due to the fact that those with money would opt for accomplishments trudeau, better health care plans which would translate to higher premiums. War Us History? Increased inaccessibility would translate to more people seeking medical care as a last resort or option and the government would spend more in the emergency care. The plan would lead to a significant increase in taxes due to the fact that the tax benefits would not increase at the same rate that the costs in health care would be increasing. Of Pierre? The current law stipulates clearly that tax benefits for employer based health care insurance would only increase with the rate that the Ethical Essay, health care costs increased. McCain’s plan had it that the tax credit would increase with the prevailing inflationary rate. The rate of inflation would not increase at accomplishments trudeau the same rate that the cost of health care would. Supporters of McCain’s health care would counter the The Politics of the Purchase, argument that this health care plan would lead to overwhelming increases in accomplishments of pierre, taxes by arguing that employees would seek insurance offered in the market rather than that offered by their employers.

Again, the assumption that employers would pass to the employees the value of benefits is appropriate theoretically rather than practically. It would be very problematic to balance or rather ensure that credits matched the costs that were to be incurred. Another issue from The Politics of the Louisiana Essay, this plan is that it would perpetuate discrimination in accessing health care as the current system does. This is attributed to the fact that some people especially the young and of pierre, healthier would opt for war us history, the market based health insurance rather that the employer based cover. For those with chronic conditions it would be costly for accomplishments, them to seek individual insurance cover and they would only use the employer based cover that would leave them with reduced disposal incomes.

Instead of Ethical Approach Essay, benefiting them the plan would oppress them or leave them badly off. McCain’s would see many Americans lose their employer based insurance and this would increase the number of the uninsured as some especially those with chronic illnesses would face discrimination from the insurance companies. The plan offered no incentives to the employers to accomplishments trudeau provide insurance to their employees. Although McCain’s proposal made sense theoretically it would create loopholes that paved room for complexities if it were to be implemented. It was inefficient in The Politics Essay, the sense that for the healthy ones the $2500 individual tax credit would be excessive while for them with health complications it would be too little. Accomplishments Of Pierre? It would not cater for the Americans effectively as it ought to. Under McCain’s health care plan the level of insurance coverage is likely to increase. More people would have insurance cover than is the movements, and expressions, case in the current system.

This is attributed to the fact that more people would be encouraged to seek individual health care plans and the disadvantaged ones would be catered for accomplishments trudeau, by GAP. (D#8217;Angelo G and Winfree P). Survival In Business? McCain’s proposal that people be allowed to purchase health insurance across the states would be difficult in the initial or implementation period. This would be attributed to the fact that different states have varying needs and trudeau, would opt for the best policy that matches their wants or needs. Of The Essay? If effectiveness was to be ensured while implementing the ‘across state’ ideology then a universal approach would best suffice but this would contradict the initial ideology of different states having different policies depending on their needs. Competition would be registered if the plan was to be implemented due to the fact that people would be attracted to the states that have best offers.

To attract them, their mother state insurance companies would lower the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, prices of of the Louisiana Purchase Essay, premiums. Increased efficiency would also be realized due to competition. Consumers or Americans would benefit in as far as variety or range of choices is concerned. McCain’s plan would affect the source of coverage in the sense that it favored individual based care to employer based coverage. The plan also discriminated across social classes.

The rich or those in the upper income levels could afford the premiums and hence easy accessibility to trudeau health care while the cold history, poor or lower class level could not afford and consequently registered high levels of inaccessibility. Over time, McCain’s health care would have similar effects on America as the current system. The inaccessibility levels would still be experienced by the low income families in the face of accomplishments, increased spending by the government. Inequality between the rich and the poor would still be encouraged and the possibility of this jeopardizing the quality of the care offered would be great. Deforestation? Patients could be treated according to the money they have paid as premiums to the varying insurance companies rather than in response to of pierre trudeau their needs. Catherine Arnst. McCain#8217;s Health-CareProposal. Retrieved on True in Hamlet by William 23rd November 2008 from. Greg D#8217;Angelo and Paul L. The McCain Health Care Plan: A Closer Look at Cost and. Of Pierre Trudeau? Coverage. Retrieved on 23rd November 2008 from.

Josh Bivens and Elise Gould. Obama health plan outperforms McCain plan in deforestation consequences, coverage. and efficiency. The Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved on 23rd November 2008. Trudeau? McCain and Palin. The Facts about the McCain-Palin Health Care Plan. Retrieved on 23rd. November 2008 from. National Academy of Sciences. 2008.

Insuring America#8217;s Health: Principles and. Recommendations. Retrieved on 23rd November 2008 2008 from. PM Pacific. Approach To Utalitarianism? McCain#8217;s radical plan to gut employer-based health coverage. Of Pierre? Retrieved on.

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essay part of speech To change text size, use the browser commands. In the toolbar, select View Zoom Zoom In, Reset or Zoom Out. On the keyboard, press COMMAND + to zoom in, COMMAND - to of pierre, zoom out or COMMAND 0 to reset. In the toolbar, select View Zoom In, Actual Size or Zoom Out. On the keyboard, press COMMAND + (Mac) or CTRL + (Windows) to zoom in, COMMAND - (Mac) or CTRL - (Windows) to zoom out or COMMAND 0 (Mac) or CTRL 0 (Windows) to view actual size. In the toolbar, select View Zoom Zoom In, Reset or Zoom Out. On the keyboard, press COMMAND + (Mac) or CTRL + (Windows) to zoom in, COMMAND - (Mac) or CTRL - (Windows) to zoom out or COMMAND 0 (Mac) or CTRL 0 (Windows) to view actual size. In the toolbar, select Options Zoom Zoom In, Custom or Zoom Out. On the of communication is called:, keyboard, press CTRL + to zoom in, CTRL - to zoom out or CTRL 0 to reset.

Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech : the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the accomplishments of pierre, adverb, the strategies in business, preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection. Each part of trudeau speech explains not what the word is , but how the through body stances, gestures, and expressions, word is used . Accomplishments Of Pierre Trudeau. In fact, the same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next. The next few examples show how a word's part of speech can change from Louisiana Essay one sentence to the next, and following them is a series of trudeau sections on the individual parts of speech, followed by the study stances, an exercise. Books are made of accomplishments of pierre ink, paper, and glue. In this sentence, books is a noun, the survival strategies, subject of the sentence. Deborah waits patiently while Bridget books the tickets. Here books is a verb, and its subject is Bridget. In this sentence, walk is of pierre trudeau a verb, and its subject is the pronoun we.

The mail carrier stood on the walk . In this example, walk is a noun, which is part of a prepositional phrase describing where the The Concept by William, mail carrier stood. The town decided to build a new jail . Here jail is trudeau a noun, which is the object of the infinitive phrase to build. The sheriff told us that if we did not leave town immediately he would jail us. Here jail is part of the compound verb would jail. They heard high pitched cries in the middle of the night. In this sentence, cries is a noun acting as the direct object of the consequences, verb heard. The baby cries all night long and all day long.

But here cries is a verb that describes the actions of the subject of the sentence, the trudeau, baby. The next few sections explain each of the parts of speech in detail. Ethical Approach. When you have finished, you might want to test yourself by trying the exercise. Written by Heather MacFadyen. The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. A verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being. The verb or compound verb is the critical element of the accomplishments of pierre, predicate of deforestation a sentence. In each of the following sentences, the verb or compound verb is highlighted : Dracula bites his victims on the neck. The verb bites describes the action Dracula takes. In early October, Giselle will plant twenty tulip bulbs.

Here the compound verb will plant describes an action that will take place in of pierre trudeau, the future. My first teacher was Miss Crawford, but I remember the janitor Mr. Weatherbee more vividly. In this sentence, the history, verb was (the simple past tense tense of accomplishments of pierre is) identifies a particular person and the verb remember describes a mental action. Karl Creelman bicycled around the world in 1899, but his diaries and his bicycle were destroyed . In this sentence, the the study of communication body movements, is called:, compound verb were destroyed describes an action which took place in the past.

Written by accomplishments Heather MacFadyen. A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Nouns are usually the first words which small children learn. The highlighted words in The Politics Louisiana Purchase Essay, the following sentences are all nouns: Late last year our neighbours bought a goat . Portia White was an opera singer . The bus inspector looked at all the passengers' passes . Of Pierre Trudeau. According to Plutarch , the library at Alexandria was destroyed in 48 B.C. Philosophy is of little comfort to the starving . A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a subject complement, an cold history object complement, an trudeau appositive, an adjective or an adverb. Many common nouns, like engineer or teacher, can refer to men or women. Once, many English nouns would change form depending on their gender -- for example, a man was called an author while a woman was called an authoress -- but this use of to Utalitarianism Essay gender-specific nouns is accomplishments of pierre very rare today. The Politics Of The Essay. Those that are still used occasionally tend to refer to occupational categories, as in the following sentences. David Garrick was a very prominent eighteenth-century actor. Sarah Siddons was at the height of her career as an accomplishments trudeau actress in the 1780s.

The manager was trying to write a want ad, but he couldn't decide whether he was advertising for Louisiana Purchase Essay, a waiter or a waitress Noun Plurals. Most nouns change their form to trudeau, indicate number by adding -s or -es, as illustrated in the following pairs of sentences: When Matthew was small he rarely told the truth if he thought he was going to be punished. Many people do not believe that truths are self-evident. As they walked through the silent house, they were startled by an unexpected echo . I like to to Utalitarianism Essay, shout into accomplishments of pierre, the quarry and deforestation, listen to accomplishments trudeau, the echoes that return. He tripped over a box left carelessly in cold war us, the hallway. Since we are moving, we will need many boxes . There are other nouns which form the plural by changing the last letter before adding s. Some words ending in f form the plural by accomplishments of pierre deleting f and adding ves, and The Politics, words ending in y form the plural by deleting the y and adding ies, as in accomplishments of pierre trudeau, the following pairs of sentences:

The harbour at Marble Mountain has one wharf . There are several wharves in deforestation, Halifax Harbour. Warsaw is their favourite city because it reminds them of their courtship. The vacation my grandparents won includes trips to of pierre trudeau, twelve European cities . Survival. The children circled around the headmaster and shouted, Are you a mouse or a man? The audience was shocked when all five men admitted that they were afraid of mice . Other nouns form the trudeau, plural irregularly. If English is your first language, you probably know most of these already: when in doubt, consult a good dictionary. In the possessive case, a noun or pronoun changes its form to show that it owns or is cold history closely related to accomplishments of pierre, something else.

Usually, nouns become possessive by adding a combination of an apostrophe and the letter s. You can form the the study movements, gestures, and expressions is called:, possessive case of a singular noun that does not end in s by adding an apostrophe and s, as in the following sentences: The red suitcase is Cassandra's . The only luggage that was lost was the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, prime minister's . The exhausted recruits were woken before dawn by the drill sergeant's screams. The miner's face was covered in deforestation, coal dust. You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that ends in s by adding an apostrophe alone or by adding an apostrophe and s, as in accomplishments of pierre trudeau, the following examples: The bus's seats are very uncomfortable. The bus' seats are very uncomfortable. True By William Essay. The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus's eggs. The film crew accidentally crushed the of pierre trudeau, platypus' eggs.

Felicia Hemans's poetry was once more popular than Lord Byron's. Felicia Hemans' poetry was once more popular than Lord Byron's. You can form the deforestation, possessive case of a plural noun that does not end in s by adding an accomplishments of pierre apostrophe and a s, as in the following examples: The children's mittens were scattered on the floor of the porch. The sheep's pen was mucked out every day.

Since we have a complex appeal process, a jury's verdict is not always final. The men's hockey team will be playing as soon as the women's team is finished. The hunter followed the moose's trail all morning but lost it in the afternoon. You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does end in s by adding an apostrophe: The concert was interrupted by the dogs' barking, the ducks' quacking, and the babies' squalling. The janitors' room is downstairs and to the left. My uncle spent many hours trying to Approach to Utalitarianism, locate the squirrels' nest. The archivist quickly finished repairing the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, diaries' bindings. Religion is the study of communication through body movements, gestures, and expressions usually the subject of the roommates' many late night debates. Using Possessive Nouns.

When you read the following sentences, you will notice that a noun in the possessive case frequently functions as an adjective modifying another noun: The miner's face was covered in coal dust. Here the possessive noun miner's is used to modify the noun face and accomplishments of pierre, together with the article the, they make up the True Essay, noun phrase that is the of pierre trudeau, sentence's subject. The concert was interrupted by the dogs' barking, the ducks' quacking, and the babies' squalling. In this sentence, each possessive noun modifies a gerund. The possessive noun dogs' modifies barking, ducks' modifies quacking, and babies' modifies squalling. The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus's eggs. In this example the possessive noun platypus's modifies the noun eggs and the noun phrase the platypus's eggs is the direct object of the verb crushed.

My uncle spent many hours trying to locate the cold war us, squirrels' nest. In this sentence the possessive noun squirrels' is of pierre used to modify the noun nest and the noun phrase the squirrels' nest is the strategies in business, object of the infinitive phrase to locate. There are many different types of nouns. As you know, you capitalise some nouns, such as Canada or Louise, and do not capitalise others, such as badger or tree (unless they appear at the beginning of a sentence). In fact, grammarians have developed a whole series of of pierre trudeau noun types, including the proper noun, the common noun, the concrete noun, the abstract noun, the of communication stances, gestures, is called:, countable noun (also called the of pierre trudeau, count noun), the non-countable noun (also called the mass noun), and the collective noun. You should note that a noun will belong to more than one type: it will be proper or common, abstract or concrete, and countable or non-countable or collective. If you are interested in the details of these different types, you can read about them in the study body stances,, the following sections. You always write a proper noun with a capital letter, since the noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. Accomplishments Trudeau. The names of days of the Essay, week, months, historical documents, institutions, organisations, religions, their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns.

A proper noun is the opposite of a common noun. In each of the following sentences, the of pierre trudeau, proper nouns are highlighted : The Marroons were transported from Jamaica and forced to build the fortifications in war us, Halifax . Many people dread Monday mornings. Beltane is celebrated on the first of May . Abraham appears in trudeau, the Talmud and in the Koran . Last year, I had a Baptist , a Buddhist , and a Gardnerian Witch as roommates. Common Nouns. A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a general sense -- usually, you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. Survival Strategies. A common noun is of pierre trudeau the opposite of a proper noun. In each of the following sentences, the common nouns are highlighted : According to the sign , the nearest town is 60 miles away. All the gardens in the neighbourhood were invaded by beetles this summer . I don't understand why some people insist on having six different kinds of the study through is called: mustard in their cupboards . The road crew was startled by the sight of three large moose crossing the of pierre, road . Many child-care workers are underpaid. Sometimes you will make proper nouns out of common nouns, as in the following examples:

The tenants in the Garnet Apartments are appealing the large and war us history, sudden increase in their rent. The meals in the Bouncing Bean Restaurant are less expensive than meals in ordinary restaurants. Many witches refer to the Renaissance as the Burning Times . The Diary of Anne Frank is often a child's first introduction to the history of the Holocaust . Concrete Nouns. A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. A concrete noun is the opposite of a abstract noun. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all concrete nouns: The judge handed the files to the clerk . Whenever they take the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, dog to the beach , it spends hours chasing waves . The real estate agent urged the strategies in business, couple to buy the second house because it had new shingles . As the car drove past the park , the thump of a disco tune overwhelmed the string quartet's rendition of a minuet . The book binder replaced the flimsy paper cover with a sturdy, cloth-covered board . Abstract Nouns. An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not perceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all abstract nouns: Buying the fire extinguisher was an afterthought . Tillie is amused by people who are nostalgic about accomplishments childhood . Justice often seems to slip out of our grasp. Some scientists believe that schizophrenia is war us transmitted genetically.

Countable Nouns. A countable noun (or count noun ) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form, and it names anything (or anyone) that you can count . You can make a countable noun plural and attach it to a plural verb in accomplishments trudeau, a sentence. Countable nouns are the opposite of non-countable nouns and collective nouns. In each of the following sentences, the highlighted words are countable nouns: We painted the table red and survival strategies, the chairs blue.

Since he inherited his aunt's library , Jerome spends every weekend indexing his books . Miriam found six silver dollars in the toe of a sock . The oak tree lost three branches in the hurricane . Over the course of twenty-seven years , Martha Ballad delivered just over eight hundred babies . Accomplishments. Non-Countable Nouns. A non-countable noun (or mass noun ) is a noun which does not have a plural form, and which refers to something that you could (or would) not usually count. A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. Non-countable nouns are similar to collective nouns, and survival strategies in business, are the opposite of countable nouns. The highlighted words in the following sentences are non-countable nouns: Joseph Priestly discovered oxygen . The word oxygen cannot normally be made plural. Oxygen is essential to human life. Since oxygen is a non-countable noun, it takes the singular verb is rather than the plural verb are. We decided to trudeau, sell the furniture rather than take it with us when we moved. You cannot make the noun furniture plural. The furniture is heaped in the middle of the room.

Since furniture is war us history a non-countable noun, it takes a singular verb, is heaped. The crew spread the gravel over accomplishments trudeau the roadbed. You cannot make the non-countable noun gravel plural. Gravel is more expensive than I thought. Since gravel is a non-countable noun, it takes the singular verb form is. A collective noun is by William Shakespeare Essay a noun naming a group of things, animals, or persons. You could count the individual members of the group, but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit. You need to accomplishments, be able to recognise collective nouns in order to cold, maintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun, and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun. In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a collective noun: The flock of geese spends most of its time in the pasture.

The collective noun flock takes the singular verb spends. The jury is dining on take-out chicken tonight. In this example the collective noun jury is the subject of the singular compound verb is dining. The steering committee meets every Wednesday afternoon. Here the collective noun committee takes a singular verb, meets. The class was startled by the bursting light bulb. In this sentence the word class is a collective noun and takes the singular compound verb was startled. Written by Heather MacFadyen. A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun.

You use pronouns like he, which, none, and accomplishments, you to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive. Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the survival in business, demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun. A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and in business, case. Subjective Personal Pronouns. A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is accomplishments trudeau acting as the subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are I, you, she, he, it, we, you, they. In the to Utalitarianism, following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a subjective personal pronoun and acts as the subject of the sentence:

I was glad to find the bus pass in the bottom of the green knapsack. You are surely the strangest child I have ever met. He stole the of pierre, selkie's skin and forced her to cold war us, live with him. When she was a young woman, she earned her living as a coal miner. Accomplishments Of Pierre. After many years, they returned to their homeland. Of Staying Shakespeare. We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m. It is on the counter. Accomplishments. Are you the delegates from Malagawatch? Objective Personal Pronouns. An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. The objective personal pronouns are: me, you, her, him, it, us, you, and them.

In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is an objective personal pronoun: Seamus stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him . The objective personal pronoun her is the direct object of the verb forced and the objective personal pronoun him is the object of the strategies in business, preposition with. After reading the pamphlet, Judy threw it into the garbage can. The pronoun it is the accomplishments, direct object of the in Hamlet by William Shakespeare, verb threw. The agitated assistant stood up and of pierre, faced the angry delegates and said, Our leader will address you in five minutes. In this sentence, the pronoun you is the deforestation, direct object of the verb address. Deborah and Roberta will meet us at the newest cafe in the market. Here the objective personal pronoun us is the direct object of the compound verb will meet.

Here the objective personal pronoun me is the object of the preposition to. I'm not sure that my contact will talk to you . Similarly in this example, the objective personal pronoun you is the accomplishments trudeau, object of the preposition to. Christopher was surprised to see her at the drag races. Here the objective personal pronoun her is the cold war us history, object of the infinitive phrase to of pierre trudeau, see. Possessive Personal Pronouns. A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are mine, yours, hers, his, its, ours, and theirs.

Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like my, her, and The Politics Purchase Essay, their. In each of the following sentences, the of pierre, highlighted word is a possessive personal pronoun: The smallest gift is mine . Here the possessive pronoun mine functions as a subject complement. Here too the possessive pronoun yours functions as a subject complement. His is on the kitchen counter. In this example, the Louisiana, possessive pronoun his acts as the subject of the sentence. Theirs will be delivered tomorrow. In this sentence, the possessive pronoun theirs is the subject of the accomplishments of pierre, sentence. Ours is the green one on the corner. Here too the possessive pronoun ours function as the Louisiana, subject of the sentence. A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun.

This and these refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while that and those refer to things that are farther away in space or time. The demonstrative pronouns are this, that, these, and those. Of Pierre Trudeau. This and that are used to deforestation consequences, refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and these and those are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though, obviously, you use them differently. It is also important to note that that can also be used as a relative pronoun. In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative pronoun: Here this is accomplishments used as the subject of the compound verb must not continue. In this example this is used as subject and refers to Ethical to Utalitarianism Essay, something close to trudeau, the speaker. The demonstrative pronoun that is also a subject but refers to something farther away from the The Politics of the Louisiana Essay, speaker. Three customers wanted these . Here these is the direct object of the verb wanted.

An interrogative pronoun is of pierre used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are who, whom, which, what and the compounds formed with the suffix ever (whoever, whomever, whichever, and whatever). Note that either which or what can also be used as an interrogative adjective, and that who, whom, or which can also be used as a relative pronoun. You will find who, whom, and of Staying True, occasionally which used to accomplishments of pierre, refer to people, and The Concept True in Hamlet Shakespeare Essay, which and what used to refer to things and to animals. Who acts as the subject of a verb, while whom acts as the object of accomplishments trudeau a verb, preposition, or a verbal. The highlighted word in Louisiana Purchase Essay, each of the following sentences is an interrogative pronoun: Which wants to see the dentist first? Which is the subject of the sentence.

Who wrote the accomplishments, novel Rockbound? Similarly who is the of Staying True Essay, subject of the accomplishments, sentence. Whom do you think we should invite? In this sentence, whom is the object of the verb invite. To whom do you wish to Ethical Approach, speak? Here the accomplishments, interrogative pronoun whom is the object of the preposition to. Who will meet the history, delegates at accomplishments of pierre trudeau, the train station? In this sentence, the body and expressions is called:, interrogative pronoun who is the subject of the compound verb will meet.

To whom did you give the paper? In this example the interrogative pronoun whom is the object of the of pierre trudeau, preposition to. Here the interrogative pronoun what is the strategies in business, direct object of the verb say. You can use a relative pronoun is used to accomplishments of pierre, link one phrase or clause to of communication body stances,, another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are who, whom, that, and which. The compounds whoever, whomever, and whichever are also relative pronouns.

You can use the relative pronouns who and accomplishments, whoever to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and whom and whomever to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition. In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun. You may invite whomever you like to the party. The relative pronoun whomever is the True by William, direct object of the compound verb may invite. The candidate who wins the of pierre, greatest popular vote is not always elected. In this sentence, the the study of communication body movements, gestures, and expressions is called:, relative pronoun is the subject of the accomplishments, verb wins and Essay, introduces the subordinate clause who wins the greatest popular vote. This subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying candidate. In a time of crisis, the manager asks the workers whom she believes to be the most efficient to arrive an hour earlier than usual.

In this sentence whom is the direct object of the verb believes and introduces the subordinate clause whom she believes to be the of pierre, most efficient. This subordinate clause modifies the noun workers. Whoever broke the window will have to replace it. Here whoever functions as the subject of the verb broke. The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage closet. In this example which acts as the strategies in business, subject of the compound verb was left and accomplishments, introduces the subordinate clause which was left in the corridor. The subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying the noun crate. I will read whichever manuscript arrives first. Here whichever modifies the noun manuscript and introduces the subordinate clause whichever manuscript arrives first. The subordinate clause functions as the direct object of the compound verb will read. An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to The Politics of the, an identifiable but not specified person or thing.

An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some. The most common indefinite pronouns are all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, each, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody, and someone. Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives. The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite pronouns: Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up. Here many acts as the subject of the accomplishments trudeau, compound verb were invited. The office had been searched and deforestation consequences, everything was thrown onto the floor. In this example, everything acts as a subject of the compound verb was thrown.

We donated everything we found in of pierre trudeau, the attic to the woman's shelter garage sale. In this sentence, everything is the direct object of theverb donated. Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found none . Here too the indefinite pronoun functions as a direct object: none is the direct object of found. Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws. In this example, everyone is the indirect object of the Approach Essay, verb give -- the accomplishments of pierre, direct object is the noun phrase a copy of the amended bylaws. Give a registration package to each . Here each is the object of the strategies in business, preposition to. You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence. The reflexive pronouns are myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves.

Note each of accomplishments trudeau these can also act as an cold intensive pronoun. Each of the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, highlighted words in survival strategies in business, the following sentences is a reflexive pronoun: Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day. The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do more important work. After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to of pierre, everyone in my office building. Richard usually remembered to consequences, send a copy of his e-mail to himself . Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves . Intensive Pronouns. An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to of pierre trudeau, emphasise its antecedent.

Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns. The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns: I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister. The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes. They themselves promised to Ethical Approach, come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time. Written by Heather MacFadyen. An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by accomplishments trudeau describing, identifying, or quantifying words.

An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives: The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops. Mrs. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper. The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea. The coal mines are dark and dank . Many stores have already begun to play irritating Christmas music. A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard. The back room was filled with large , yellow rain boots. An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clausefunctioning as an adverb.

In the sentence. My husband knits intricately patterned mittens. for example, the of communication through body movements, is called:, adverb intricately modifies the adjective patterned. Some nouns, many pronouns, and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. In the of pierre, sentence. Eleanor listened to the muffled sounds of the Ethical to Utalitarianism, radio hidden under her pillow. for example, both highlighted adjectives are past participles. Grammarians also consider articles (the, a, an) to be adjectives. A possessive adjective (my, your, his, her, its, our, their) is similar or identical to a possessive pronoun; however, it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrase, as in trudeau, the following sentences: I can't complete my assignment because I don't have the textbook. In this sentence, the possessive adjective my modifies assignment and the noun phrase my assignment functions as an object.

Note that the possessive pronoun form mine is not used to modify a noun or noun phrase. What is your phone number. Here the possessive adjective your is used to modify the noun phrase phone number; the entire noun phrase your phone number is a subject complement. Note that the possessive pronoun form yours is not used to deforestation consequences, modify a noun or a noun phrase. The bakery sold his favourite type of bread. In this example, the possessive adjective his modifies the noun phrase favourite type of accomplishments bread and deforestation, the entire noun phrase his favourite type of bread is the direct object of the verb sold. After many years, she returned to her homeland.

Here the possessive adjective her modifies the noun homeland and the noun phrase her homeland is the object of the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, prepositionto. Note also that the form hers is not used to Approach, modify nouns or noun phrases. We have lost our way in this wood. In this sentence, the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, possessive adjective our modifies way and survival in business, the noun phrase our way is the direct object of the compound verbhave lost. Note that the possessive pronoun form ours is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. In many fairy tales, children are neglected by their parents.

Here the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, possessive adjective their modifies parents and the noun phrase their parents is the object of the preposition by. Note that the possessive pronoun form theirs is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. The cat chased its ball down the strategies in business, stairs and into trudeau, the backyard. In this sentence, the possessive adjective its modifies ball and of Staying in Hamlet, the noun phrase its ball is the object of the verb chased. Note that its is the possessive adjective and it's is a contraction for it is. The demonstrative adjectives this, these, that, those, and what are identical to the demonstrative pronouns, but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases, as in the following sentences: When the accomplishments of pierre, librarian tripped over that cord, she dropped a pile of The Concept of Staying True Shakespeare Essay books. In this sentence, the demonstrative adjective that modifies the noun cord and accomplishments trudeau, the noun phrase that cord is the object of the preposition over.

This apartment needs to be fumigated. Here this modifies apartment and the noun phrase this apartment is the subject of the sentence. Even though my friend preferred those plates, I bought these. In the subordinate clause, those modifies plates and the noun phrase those plates is the object of the verb preferred. In the independent clause, these is the direct object of the verb bought. Note that the deforestation consequences, relationship between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun is similar to the relationship between a possessive adjective and a possessive pronoun, or to that between a interrogative adjective and an interrogative pronoun. An interrogative adjective (which or what) is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own (see also demonstrative adjectives and possessive adjectives): Which plants should be watered twice a week? Like other adjectives, which can be used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. In this example, which modifies plants and the noun phrase which plants is the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, subject of the compound verb should be watered:

What book are you reading? In this sentence, what modifies book and the noun phrase what book is the direct object of the compound verb are reading. An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun, except that it modifies a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase, as in Approach, the following sentences: Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed. The indefinite adjective many modifies the noun people and the noun phrase many people is the subject of the sentence. I will send you any mail that arrives after you have moved to accomplishments of pierre, Sudbury. The indefinite adjective any modifies the war us, noun mail and the noun phrase any mail is the direct object of the compound verb will send. They found a few goldfish floating belly up in the swan pound. In this example the indefinite adjective modifies the noun goldfish and the noun phrase is the direct object of the verb found: The title of Kelly's favourite game is All dogs go to accomplishments trudeau, heaven. Here the of communication through movements,, indefinite pronoun all modifies dogs and the full title is a subject complement.

Written by Heather MacFadyen. An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as how, when, where, how much. While some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic ly suffix, most of them must be identified by untangling the grammatical relationships within the sentence or clause as a whole. Unlike an adjective, an adverb can be found in various places within the sentence. In the following examples, each of the highlighted words is an adverb: The seamstress quickly made the mourning clothes. In this sentence, the adverb quickly modifies the verb made and accomplishments, indicates in what manner (or how fast) the clothing was constructed. The midwives waited patiently through a long labour.

Similarly in cold history, this sentence, the adverb patiently modifies the verb waited and accomplishments of pierre, describes the manner in which the midwives waited. The boldly spoken words would return to haunt the rebel. In this sentence the adverb boldly modifies the adjective spoken. We urged him to dial the by William Shakespeare Essay, number more expeditiously . Here the adverb more modifies the accomplishments, adverb expeditiously. Unfortunately , the bank closed at three today . In this example, the adverb unfortunately modifies the entire sentence.

You can use a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses together. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs are also, consequently, finally, furthermore, hence, however, incidentally, indeed, instead, likewise, meanwhile, nevertheless, next, nonetheless, otherwise, still, then, therefore, and thus. A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two independent clauses without the aid of a semicolon. The highlighted words in the following sentences are conjunctive adverbs: The government has cut university budgets; consequently , class sizes have been increased. He did not have all the ingredients the the study of communication gestures, and expressions, recipe called for; therefore , he decided to make something else. The report recommended several changes to the ways the corporation accounted for donations; furthermore , it suggested that a new auditor be appointed immediately. The crowd waited patiently for three hours; finally , the doors to the stadium were opened. Batman and Robin fruitlessly searched the building; indeed , the Joker had escaped through a secret door in the basement. Written by Heather MacFadyen.

A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. The book is Ethical to Utalitarianism Essay beneath the table. Accomplishments Trudeau. The book is of Staying True Essay leaning against the table. The book is beside the table.

She held the book over the table. She read the book during class. In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun book in space or in time. A prepositional phrase is accomplishments of pierre trudeau made up of the preposition, its object and the study of communication body movements, gestures,, any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, but, by, despite, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, onto, out, outside, over, past, since, through, throughout, till, to, toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, and without. Each of the highlighted words in accomplishments of pierre trudeau, the following sentences is a preposition: The children climbed the mountain without fear. In this sentence, the preposition without introduces the noun fear. Survival Strategies. The prepositional phrase without fear functions as an adverb describing how the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, children climbed.

There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated. Here, the of Staying True in Hamlet Shakespeare Essay, preposition throughout introduces the accomplishments of pierre, noun phrase the land. The prepositional phrase acts as an survival in business adverb describing the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, location of the rejoicing. The spider crawled slowly along the banister. The preposition along introduces the noun phrase the banister and The Politics Louisiana Essay, the prepositional phrase along the banister acts as an adverb, describing where the spider crawled. The dog is hiding under the porch because it knows it will be punished for chewing up a new pair of shoes. Here the preposition under introduces the accomplishments of pierre, prepositional phrase under the deforestation, porch, which acts as an adverb modifying the compound verb is hiding. The screenwriter searched for the manuscript he was certain was somewhere in his office. Similarly in this sentence, the trudeau, preposition in introduces a prepositional phrase in his office, which acts as an adverb describing the location of the missing papers. Written by Heather MacFadyen.

You can use a conjunction to link words, phrases, and clauses, as in the following example: I ate the pizza and the pasta. Call the movers when you are ready. Co-ordinating Conjunctions. You use a co-ordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, so, or yet) to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses.

Note that you can also use the conjunctions but and for as prepositions. In the following sentences, each of the of communication movements, stances, is called:, highlighted words is a co-ordinating conjunction: Lilacs and violets are usually purple. In this example, the co-ordinating conjunction and links two nouns. This movie is particularly interesting to feminist film theorists, for the screenplay was written by Mae West. In this example, the co-ordinating conjunction for accomplishments of pierre, is used to link two independent clauses. Daniel's uncle claimed that he spent most of his youth dancing on rooftops and survival strategies in business, swallowing goldfish. Here the co-ordinating conjunction and links two participle phrases (dancing on rooftops and accomplishments, swallowing goldfish) which act as adverbs describing the verb spends. A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and of communication body, indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and trudeau, the dependent clause(s).

The most common subordinating conjunctions are after, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, till, until, when, where, whether, and consequences, while. Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a subordinating conjunction: After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent. The subordinating conjunction after introduces the trudeau, dependent clause After she had learned to drive. If the survival, paperwork arrives on accomplishments trudeau time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday.

Similarly, the subordinating conjunction if introduces the of the Purchase, dependent clause If the paperwork arrives on time. Gerald had to begin his thesis over again when his computer crashed. The subordinating conjunction when introduces the dependent clause when his computer crashed. Midwifery advocates argue that home births are safer because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs. In this sentence, the of pierre trudeau, dependent clause because the mother and baby are exposed to Louisiana Purchase, fewer people and fewer germs is introduced by the subordinating conjunction because. Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs -- you use them to accomplishments, link equivalent sentence elements. The most common correlative conjunctions are both. and, either. or, neither. nor,, not only. The Politics Of The. but also, so. Accomplishments Of Pierre Trudeau. as, and whether. or. (Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a co-ordinating conjunction linked to an adjective or adverb.) The highlighted words in through body movements, gestures,, the following sentences are correlative conjunctions: Both my grandfather and accomplishments of pierre trudeau, my father worked in cold war us history, the steel plant. In this sentence, the correlative conjunction both. and is used to link the two noun phrases that act as the compound subject of the of pierre trudeau, sentence: my grandfather and my father.

Bring either a Jello salad or a potato scallop. Here the correlative conjunction either. or links two noun phrases: a Jello salad and a potato scallop. Corinne is trying to decide whether to go to medical school or to go to The Concept of Staying True in Hamlet Shakespeare, law school. Similarly, the correlative conjunction whether . or links the two infinitive phrases to accomplishments of pierre, go to of communication body movements,, medical school and to go to trudeau, law school. The explosion destroyed not only the school but also the neighbouring pub. In this example the correlative conjunction not only . Of Staying By William Shakespeare. but also links the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, two noun phrases (the school and neighbouring pub) which act as direct objects. Note: some words which appear as conjunctions can also appear as prepositions or as adverbs. Written by Heather MacFadyen. An interjection is a word added to a sentence to of Staying True, convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to accomplishments, any other part of the sentence.

You usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark. Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose, except in direct quotations. The highlighted words in consequences, the following sentences are interjections: Ouch , that hurt! Oh no , I forgot that the accomplishments of pierre trudeau, exam was today. In Hamlet By William Shakespeare Essay. Hey ! Put that down!

I heard one guy say to another guy, He has a new car, eh ? I don't know about you but, good lord , I think taxes are too high!