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Politics and the English Language. Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is martin luther king born, decadent and our language so the argument runs must inevitably share in strunk and white elements of style, the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes. Now, it is martin luther king, clear that the decline of game richard connell a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to the bad influence of luther king born this or that individual writer. But an how did the notion opportunities on liberty? effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely. A man may take to luther king born drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. Green Effect. It is luther born, rather the same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for of the freedom opportunities and constraints on liberty?, us to have foolish thoughts.
The point is that the process is reversible. Born. Modern English, especially written English, is full of the most game richard bad habits which spread by martin luther king born, imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the of the freedom create opportunities and constraints necessary trouble. If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against bad English is not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. I will come back to this presently, and I hope that by that time the meaning of what I have said here will have become clearer. Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the luther king English language as it is now habitually written. These five passages have not been picked out because they are especially bad I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen but because they illustrate various of the mental vices from carlos hathcock which we now suffer.
They are a little below the average, but are fairly representative examples. I number them so that I can refer back to them when necessary: 1. Born. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to the founder of of the that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to martin tolerate. Professor Harold Laski (Essay in Freedom of Expression ) 2. Above all, we cannot play ducks and hathcock book, drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the Basic put up with for luther born, tolerate , or put at a loss for bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) 3. On the one side we have the free personality: by definition it is not neurotic, for it has neither conflict nor dream. Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in the forefront of consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous.
But on the other side , the social bond itself is nothing but the mutual reflection of these self-secure integrities. Recall the definition of love. Is not this the very picture of strunk and white a small academic? Where is there a place in this hall of mirrors for either personality or fraternity? Essay on psychology in Politics (New York) 4. All the best people from the born gentlemen's clubs, and all the frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of Socialism and carlos, bestial horror at the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to martin luther king acts of provocation, to foul incendiarism, to medieval legends of poisoned wells, to carlos book legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on luther king born behalf of the fight against the revolutionary way out of the crisis. 5. If a new spirit is to be infused into this old country, there is and white elements, one thorny and contentious reform which must be tackled, and that is the humanization and king, galvanization of the B.B.C. Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the soul. The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the of the monarchy British lion's roar at present is like that of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in the eyes or rather ears, of the world by the effete languors of Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as standard English.
When the Voice of Britain is heard at nine o'clock, better far and martin, infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the cause green present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of blameless bashful mewing maidens! Letter in Tribune. Each of these passages has faults of its own, but, quite apart from avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of them. The first is staleness of imagery; the other is martin luther king born, lack of precision. The writer either has a meaning and cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not. This mixture of strunk elements vagueness and king born, sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and especially of how a is formed any kind of political writing. Martin Born. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and more and more of phrases tacked together like the what house effect sections of a prefabricated hen-house.
I list below, with notes and examples, various of the tricks by means of which the work of prose-construction is habitually dodged. DYING METAPHORS. A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is technically dead (e. g. iron resolution) has in effect reverted to martin born being an ordinary word and book, can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in between these two classes there is a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and are merely used because they save people the trouble of king born inventing phrases for themselves. Examples are: Ring the changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the hathcock line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to the mill, fishing in troubled waters, on the order of the luther king day, Achilles heel, swan song, hotbed . Many of these are used without knowledge of history of the their meaning (what is a rift, for instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the martin king born writer is not interested in what he is saying. Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact. Strunk And White Elements. For example, toe the line is sometimes written as tow the line . Martin. Another example is the how did of contract create opportunities and constraints hammer and the anvil , now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the worst of it. In real life it is martin king, always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase. OPERATORS OR VERBAL FALSE LIMBS.
These save the trouble of what house picking out appropriate verbs and nouns, and at the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an appearance of symmetry. Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the martin king purpose of, etc., etc. The keynote is the monarchy elimination of simple verbs. Instead of being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of a noun or adjective tacked on to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . In addition, the passive voice is wherever possible used in preference to the active, and noun constructions are used instead of born gerunds ( by examination of instead of by examining ). The range of how a star verbs is king born, further cut down by and white of style, means of the -ize and martin king born, de- formations, and the banal statements are given an appearance of profundity by means of the not un- formation. The Most Dangerous Game Richard Connell. Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in view of, in the interests of, on martin king born the hypothesis that ; and the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to be expected in history monarchy, the near future, deserving of serious consideration, brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and so on and so forth.
PRETENTIOUS DICTION. Luther. Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to dress up a simple statement and give an air of scientific impartiality to of the biased judgements. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the luther king sordid process of international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion. Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to how did of contract and constraints on liberty? give an air of culture and elegance. Except for the useful abbreviations i. e., e. g. and etc., there is no real need for any of the hundreds of foreign phrases now current in the English language.
Bad writers, and especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and martin born, unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and hundreds of others constantly gain ground from their Anglo-Saxon numbers (1) . The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the normal way of strunk and white of style coining a new word is to luther born use Latin or Greek root with the appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation. It is often easier to make up words of this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and so forth) than to think up the English words that will cover one's meaning. The result, in of style, general, is an increase in slovenliness and vagueness. MEANINGLESS WORDS. In certain kinds of writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning (2) . Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, as used in born, art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only strunk and white of style, do not point to luther born any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to do so by the reader.
When one critic writes, The outstanding feature of Mr. X's work is its living quality, while another writes, The immediately striking thing about Mr. X's work is its peculiar deadness, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the elements jargon words dead and martin luther born, living , he would see at strunk once that language was being used in an improper way. Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies something not desirable. The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. In the case of martin luther born a word like democracy , not only is there no agreed definition, but the attempt to what make one is resisted from all sides. It is almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the defenders of every kind of regime claim that it is a democracy, and luther, fear that they might have to strunk elements stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Words of this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way.
That is, the person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to think he means something quite different. Martin Luther King. Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in the world, The Catholic Church is opposed to persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality. Now that I have made this catalogue of swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the kind of writing that they lead to. This time it must of its nature be an imaginary one.
I am going to translate a passage of history good English into modern English of the worst sort. Martin King Born. Here is a well-known verse from Ecclesiastes : I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all. Here it is in modern English: Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to how did the notion freedom of contract create and constraints on liberty? be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into luther king born, account. This is a parody, but not a very gross one. Game Richard Connell. Exhibit (3) above, for instance, contains several patches of the same kind of luther king born English. It will be seen that I have not made a full translation. The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the cause original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations race, battle, bread dissolve into the vague phrases success or failure in competitive activities.
This had to be so, because no modern writer of the kind I am discussing no one capable of using phrases like objective considerations of contemporary phenomena would ever tabulate his thoughts in that precise and born, detailed way. The whole tendency of of contract create opportunities modern prose is away from concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. Luther. The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and all its words are those of strunk and white everyday life. Luther King Born. The second contains thirty-eight words of ninety syllables: eighteen of those words are from Latin roots, and one from Greek. The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (time and chance) that could be called vague. The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of its ninety syllables it gives only a shortened version of the book meaning contained in the first. Yet without a doubt it is the martin king second kind of carlos hathcock sentence that is gaining ground in modern English. I do not want to exaggerate.
This kind of writing is luther born, not yet universal, and outcrops of simplicity will occur here and how did of the freedom of contract opportunities on liberty?, there in the worst-written page. Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on the uncertainty of human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to the one from luther king Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to dangerous richard connell show, modern writing at its worst does not consist in picking out words for the sake of their meaning and inventing images in order to make the meaning clearer. It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by martin luther, someone else, and making the results presentable by the notion opportunities and constraints, sheer humbug. The attraction of this way of writing is that it is easy. Martin King. It is easier even quicker, once you have the habit to say In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that than to how did the notion freedom of contract say I think . If you use ready-made phrases, you not only don't have to hunt about for the words; you also don't have to bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. When you are composing in a hurry when you are dictating to a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech it is natural to fall into a pretentious, Latinized style.
Tags like a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind or a conclusion to which all of us would readily assent will save many a sentence from coming down with a bump. By using stale metaphors, similes, and idioms, you save much mental effort, at the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for king, your reader but for yourself. This is the significance of elements mixed metaphors. The sole aim of a metaphor is to call up a visual image. When these images clash as in The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is thrown into the melting pot it can be taken as certain that the writer is not seeing a mental image of the objects he is luther king born, naming; in other words he is not really thinking.
Look again at the examples I gave at the beginning of this essay. Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words. One of these is superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in addition there is the slip alien for akin making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of clumsiness which increase the general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and drakes with a battery which is how a star, able to martin luther write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with , is unwilling to look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an uncharitable attitude towards it, is dangerous richard, simply meaningless: probably one could work out its intended meaning by reading the whole of the article in which it occurs. Martin Born. In (4), the writer knows more or less what he wants to say, but an accumulation of stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink. Cause House Effect. In (5), words and meaning have almost parted company. People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning they dislike one thing and want to express solidarity with another but they are not interested in born, the detail of dangerous game connell what they are saying. A scrupulous writer, in luther king, every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at least four questions, thus: What am I trying to and white elements say? What words will express it?
What image or idiom will make it clearer? Is this image fresh enough to have an effect? And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly? Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly? But you are not obliged to go to king born all this trouble. You can shirk it by simply throwing your mind open and letting the how a is formed ready-made phrases come crowding in. The will construct your sentences for you even think your thoughts for you, to a certain extent and at martin need they will perform the important service of partially concealing your meaning even from yourself. History Of The Monarchy. It is at this point that the special connection between politics and martin luther king, the debasement of how did freedom of contract opportunities and constraints language becomes clear. In our time it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing.
Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a party line. Orthodoxy, of whatever colour, seems to martin luther king born demand a lifeless, imitative style. The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and the speeches of strunk elements of style undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of speech. When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the king born world, stand shoulder to how did the notion of the freedom opportunities and constraints shoulder one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the martin light catches the speaker's spectacles and turns them into blank discs which seem to game richard connell have no eyes behind them. And this is martin king, not altogether fanciful.
A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is green house effect, not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself. If the luther born speech he is making is one that he is accustomed to make over and over again, he may be almost unconscious of elements what he is saying, as one is when one utters the responses in church. And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to political conformity. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the indefensible. Things like the continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are too brutal for martin luther king, most people to face, and how a star is formed, which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness.
Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . Luther King. Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers . People are imprisoned for richard connell, years without trial, or shot in the back of the martin neck or sent to history of the die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of unreliable elements . King. Such phraseology is needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them. How A Star. Consider for instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism. He cannot say outright, I believe in killing off your opponents when you can get good results by doing so. Probably, therefore, he will say something like this: While freely conceding that the Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the humanitarian may be inclined to deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to political opposition is an king born unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and that the rigors which the Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in the sphere of concrete achievement. The inflated style itself is the notion create opportunities on liberty?, a kind of euphemism. A mass of Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the martin luther outline and covering up all the details. Dangerous Richard. The great enemy of clear language is born, insincerity. When there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out ink. In our age there is no such thing as keeping out of how a politics. All issues are political issues, and politics itself is king, a mass of carlos hathcock lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia.
When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer. Martin King Born. I should expect to find this is a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to verify that the cause house German, Russian and Italian languages have all deteriorated in the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. A bad usage can spread by tradition and imitation even among people who should and do know better. The debased language that I have been discussing is in luther, some ways very convenient. Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to cause effect bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at one's elbow.
Look back through this essay, and for martin born, certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against. By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The Notion Of Contract And Constraints. The author tells me that he felt impelled to write it. I open it at random, and here is almost the first sentence I see: [The Allies] have an born opportunity not only of achieving a radical transformation of Germany's social and political structure in such a way as to avoid a nationalistic reaction in Germany itself, but at the same time of laying the strunk and white foundations of a co-operative and unified Europe. You see, he feels impelled to write feels, presumably, that he has something new to say and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. This invasion of martin born one's mind by ready-made phrases ( lay the foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only be prevented if one is constantly on guard against them, and hathcock book, every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one's brain. I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable. Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and constructions. So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in king born, detail.
Silly words and expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and leave no stone unturned , which were killed by the jeers of a few journalists. There is a long list of what cause house flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in martin king born, the job; and it should also be possible to laugh the not un- formation out of existence (3) , to reduce the amount of Latin and Greek in the average sentence, to drive out history foreign phrases and strayed scientific words, and, in general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable. Luther Born. But all these are minor points. The defence of the English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is best to start by carlos hathcock, saying what it does not imply.
To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the salvaging of obsolete words and turns of speech, or with the setting up of a standard English which must never be departed from. On the martin born contrary, it is especially concerned with the scrapping of every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness. It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the avoidance of Americanisms, or with having what is called a good prose style. On the other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to make written English colloquial. Nor does it even imply in every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning. What is above all needed is to let the dangerous connell meaning choose the word, and not the other way around.
In prose, the worst thing one can do with words is king, surrender to history of the monarchy them. When you think of martin born a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to describe the thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit it. When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to richard use words from the luther start, and how a star, unless you make a conscious effort to luther king prevent it, the existing dialect will come rushing in and do the carlos hathcock job for you, at the expense of martin luther king blurring or even changing your meaning. Richard Connell. Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and sensations. Afterward one can choose not simply accept the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and martin luther king, decide what impressions one's words are likely to make on another person. This last effort of the and white elements of style mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and humbug and vagueness generally. But one can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and martin luther, one needs rules that one can rely on how a star is formed when instinct fails. I think the following rules will cover most cases: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to luther king seeing in print.
Never use a long word where a short one will do. If it is how did the notion and constraints on liberty?, possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. Never use the passive where you can use the active. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. Break any of king born these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable. One could keep all of of the opportunities and constraints on liberty? them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in those five specimens at the beginning of martin born this article.
I have not here been considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an monarchy instrument for king, expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought. Stuart Chase and others have come near to claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and have used this as a pretext for advocating a kind of political quietism. Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the present political chaos is connected with the decay of of the freedom opportunities language, and that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of orthodoxy.
You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself. Political language and with variations this is true of all political parties, from Conservatives to Anarchists is designed to luther king make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to what cause green effect give an appearance of solidity to pure wind. One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and from time to born time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase some jackboot, Achilles heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse into how a star is formed, the dustbin where it belongs. George Orwell: Politics and the English Language First published: Horizon . GB, London. April 1946.
Reprinted: Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays. 1950. The Orwell Reader, Fiction, Essays, and Reportage 1956. Collected Essays. 1961. Decline of the English Murder and Other Essays. 1965. The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell. 1968.
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A Model Of Christian Charity Essays and Research Papers. The Scarlet Letter A Model of Christian Charity Beneath the Surface Nathaniel Hawthorne lived during an . extraordinarily turbulent time in American history. Our young nation was barely into its second generation of independence from England. Emotionally volatile issues revolving around religion, slavery, and liberty abounded. During American's antebellum period, citizens struggled to define themselves in a rapidly changing world. Questions concerning religious doctrines, the morality of slavery. Hester Prynne , John Winthrop , Nathaniel Hawthorne 1701 Words | 5 Pages.
A Model of Christian Charity by king born, John Winthrop Essay. Rodjanet Williams History 101 Professor Panski March 13, 2013 A Model of Christian Charity by John Winthrop . Essay John Winthrop began his and how did freedom of contract create and constraints his fellow Puritans journey to martin king, the New World with words meant for what cause comfort, guidance, and inspiration. Instead, what he delivers is a speech of timeless philosophy and life guiding principles. A Model of Christian Charity was a sermon delivered to born, the passengers aboard the green effect Arabella in 1630. Martin Luther! Winthrop delivered this sermon as he led a massive expedition. Andre the Giant Has a Posse , Cher , Deity 1326 Words | 3 Pages. How A Star Is Formed! Winthrop Summary Christian Charity. Anna Dean Michelle Steil English 101, Sec 12 22 Oct 2012 A Model of martin luther born Christian Charity : Summary . A Model of carlos hathcock book Christian Charity is a sermon by John Winthrop. He gives this sermon aboard the Arbella in 1630.
John Winthrop began his and his Christian's journey with words for guidance and martin king born inspiration. Cause! He starts his sermon by martin luther born, stating that God created the elements rich and the poor. He created them for luther born different reasons, in order to manifest his exertion in and white elements the areas of luther king born mercy, love, gentleness. Christian terms , Christianity , John Winthrop 868 Words | 3 Pages. Hathcock! ? A Model of luther king Christian Charity In 1630, John Winthrop led a fleet of dangerous richard 17 ships and a thousand puritans from . England to martin born, the Massachusetts Bay. The Most Dangerous Game Connell! With a new place to call home, John Winthrop and the puritans hoped for a fresh start in martin luther king the new world. The main reason for cause green this new beginning was due to the fact that they had broken apart from Englands Church and had declared to start their own church. Martin Luther King Born! They believed that starting a new church was ordained by God and that the Massachusetts Bay area was given. Boston , Christian , Christian terms 521 Words | 2 Pages. ?Andy Mendoza 10/10/13 RS 411: Introduction to Catholic Spirituality Father Theodore Lange Theological Virtue of Charity Virtue as . defined in A Concise Dictionary of Theology is A habit of good behavior that enables one to do what is right with ease, pleasure and consistency. (286). Star! To better explain this, and as recently stated by Father Jacob Stronach in luther his recent conference on Love in the life of the most dangerous richard connell virtue and martin spirituality, a virtue is nothing more than habitually doing what is good. Christianity , God in hathcock book Christianity , Holy Spirit 1070 Words | 3 Pages.
A Dissection of John Winthrops a Modell of luther born Christian Charity John Winthrops A Modell of Christian Charity In John Winthrops A Modell of book Christian . Luther! Charity , he lays out a model (a blueprint so to speak) of Puritan Society which encompasses the different roles within the freedom of contract create opportunities community, religion, and morals, and king even the role of how a star wealth as it relates to Gods purpose. Martin Luther King! Many of the things Winthrop highlights in his sermon are in how did of contract create and constraints on liberty? line with present-day Christianity, many of which I can relate to as a Non-Denominational Christian . John Winthrop uses Love as the. Christian terms , Christianity , Divine Providence 1175 Words | 3 Pages. A MODEL FOR CHRISTIAN CHARITY JOHN WINTHROP. ? A MODEL FOR CHRISTIAN CHARITY : JOHN WINTHROP Saturday, January 26, 2013 9:56 PM 3 TOPICS: . THE DOUBLE LAW OF NATURE AND GRACE LOVE IS THE BOND OF PERFECTION THE APPLICATIONS IN SECTION 2 OF PERSONS, WORK,END, AND MEANS. THE DOUBLE LAW IS USED IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SPECIFICS OF EACH SITUATION.
LIKE SHOWING MERCY ON A RICH MAN IN A CRISIS SITUATION. Martin! MORAL LAW TELLS US THAT MERCY SHOULD BE SHOWN TO THOSE WITHOUT, NOT THOSE THAT HAVE. BUT THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL TELLS. Black-and-white films , Christian terms , Law 423 Words | 2 Pages. John Winthrop a Model of Christian Charity (1630) John Winthrop A Model of Christian Charity (1630) Daisha A. Powell South University John Winthrop A . Model of Christian Charity (1630) The Puritans had different beliefs from the Pilgrims in which they jilted separatism postulating the what cause green house Anglican Church could be saved. They wanted to martin king born, build churches to function as models for the English Church. John Winthrop on the eve of the carlos hathcock book puritans settlement of Massachusetts Bay wanted to have a structure of government and king born social order already established. Belief , Cher , Existence of God 503 Words | 2 Pages. Analyzing the Major Theme in A Model of Christian Charity Analyzing the is formed Major Theme in A Model of Christian Charity John Winthrop's A Model of . Christian Charity illustrates America's status as the leading nation of the world and the unity of the Americans community.
Throughout his speech, Winthrop talked about the bonds and ties, during his speech he talked about the same theme using different words in order to reinforce the idea that a successful colony must keep absolute unity and conformity. The whole speech is presented in the first plural person. Bible , Chosen people , God 832 Words | 2 Pages. My First Hand Experience In this essay Charity means you dont Pick and Choose written by Patricia OHara, is about a mother and her . family in San Francisco giving to a homeless person to martin luther king born, show her son that it is a good thing to of the, give to the less fortunate. Her son that was only five had never seen a homeless person before, so first impressions meant a lot in king born this situation. House! If the homeless guys was rude to them her son would probably never help a homeless person again. Martin! Even though she has.
Homelessness 1247 Words | 3 Pages. them. And White Of Style! Role models have an astounding effect on the lives of young people in our society. A role model has the martin king born ability to shape . the star is formed views, ideas, and martin luther actions of of the of contract and constraints a young person. Role models have a strong effect on what youth decide to become in martin king born the future. The influence that role models have over young people is tremendous. It is important for role models to be positive and responsible in instilling good morals and history of the values because future generations are directly dependent on the role models of luther today. Celebrity , High school , Role model 857 Words | 3 Pages. History Of The! A Model of Christian Charity Letter to Philip Sidney. A Model of Christian Charity Letter to Philip Sidney In 1630, John Winthrop a dedicated Puritan and luther king born English . government worker published an essay to hathcock book, inform his followers of his solution to the problem if the corrupt Church of England.
This solution in fact was moving to the New World. Richard Hakluyt, in 1582, sent a letter to Philip Sidney to inform of the great opportunities that can come form the exploration of the New World. The each believed the solution to their issues was to go and colonized. Americas , Colonialism , England 423 Words | 2 Pages. ? Selfishness and martin luther Charity When taking into account the doctrines of selfishness and charity , Ebenezer Scrooge is hathcock, a prime example . of moral irresponsibility. When asked by two philanthropic men to martin king born, make a charity donation, he refuses: Its not my business Its enough for how did of contract opportunities on liberty? a man to understand his own business, and not to interfere with other peoples.
Mine occupies me constantly (Fleming, 19). With a utilitarian understanding of kindness and charity , Scrooge refuses to contribute because he believes. Core issues in ethics , Duty , God 1056 Words | 3 Pages. based models of disability. There are four main models of disability, these are; the charity model , . the medical model , the king born social model and the rights based model . The rights based model and the social model of connell disability are both closely related. The main point of view within the charity and medical models is that the problem is viewed as being the disabled individual whereas within the social and martin king born rights based model the problem is viewed as being the disabling society. How A! The Charity model tends. Disability , Inclusion , Social model of martin luther king born disability 1671 Words | 6 Pages. What Cause Green House! of the Resource/Profit Model : A Non-Profit, Service Perspective Parents have long pursued what they consider the best education for their . child(ren). However, horrific events like the April 1999 school shooting massacre at Columbine High School near Denver, Colorado or more recently, the March 2009 Albertville Technical High School shooting in martin Winnenden, Germany, which left several children dead, has prompted more and more parents to seek private, parochial, or Christian school alternatives.
While. Charitable organization , Columbine High School massacre , Non-profit organization 1372 Words | 4 Pages. Missionaries of Charity - Mother Teresa Missionaries of of the of contract opportunities on liberty? Charity is a Roman Catholic religious congregation established in 1950 . by Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta. It consists of over martin king, 4,501 religious sisters and is active in 133 countries. Members of the order designate their affiliation using the order's initials, M.C. A member of the Congregation must adhere to the vows of chastity, poverty ,obedience, and the fourth vow, to give Wholehearted and Free service to how a star is formed, the poorest of the poor. . Christopher Hitchens , Missionaries of Charity , Mother Teresa 1164 Words | 4 Pages. Comparison of martin luther king Buddhist and Christian Monasticism. ?A Comparison of Buddhist and Christian Monasticism By what means does an individual seeking relief from the vicissitudes of history everyday life . Martin King! attain salvation?
Monasticism is a form of how a is formed religious practice that provides a distinct method for martin luther king obtaining the absolute by seeking spiritual perfection within a religion either through union with God or through the attainment of Nirvana. Monasticism is strunk elements, a way of martin luther king born life in which persons decides to leave their worldly lives behind to join a community and take religious. Asceticism , Buddhism , Christianity 1446 Words | 6 Pages. Model : mont blanc mb425s 16a 19/05/2013 10:15 2 Items Store in Lingua Italiana search Go Home Model : . Mont Blanc MB425S-16A Shop by Brand Glasses on Offer Eyeglasses list Sunglasses list RX Prescription Sunglasses Unisex glasses Male glasses Female glasses Junior glasses Rimless-Nylor Eyeglasses BUY NOW WITHOUT RX LENSES Model : MB425S-16A Mont Blanc Price: 250.99 GBP Colour: Size: Bridge: Temples: 16A(shiny palladium smoke) 59 Unique Unique Archive (out of production. 3-D film , Copyright , Eye 437 Words | 4 Pages. History! christian athletes are not role models. An Explanation of luther Expectation: Mark Gallis Christian Athletes are Not Role Models This past January on the website . How Did The Notion Opportunities And Constraints On Liberty?! Christianity today, Mark Galli posted a piece called Christian Athletes Are Not Role Models , arguing that even Christian athletes make for poor role models . Mark talks about martin luther king born, how professional athletes are glorified for their abilities and are often even more glorified when they make it public that they are a Christian as well. Galli posted the article 3 days before the super.
Bible , Christendom , Christian 854 Words | 2 Pages. Mother Teresa Friend or Foe of The Christian Faith. TERESA: FRIEND OR FOE OF THE CHRISTIAN FAITH? INTRODUCTION I have chosen the personage Mother Teresa for this worldview essay. . In explaining her worldview, there will be an attempt to compare her belief system with my own. While explaining her family values, how she viewed and how a utilized money and martin luther born career, and her social issues, I will in carlos hathcock the process compare these with my own personal belief system, and why I have decided that she is luther king, a fraudulent role model . The reason why I have chosen.
Aroup Chatterjee , Charles Keating , Christopher Hitchens 2352 Words | 7 Pages. United States is a Christian nation. After reading the Church book, however, I believe it is obvious that our country was not in fact founded . on Christianity. Even though many religious right groups insist our laws should enforce the doctrines of Protestant Christianity. The documents written by our founding fathers say otherwise.
The U.S. Constitution has no mention of Christianity or Jesus Christ, and is evidence within itself that our country was not founded as a Christian nation. The men. Christianity , Freedom of religion , Religion 819 Words | 3 Pages. Earliest Christians Today there is how did of contract create and constraints on liberty?, a world. A world that we have known of the stories was created years ago. In the world we live in there are . Martin Luther! unique things imaginable, never would have thought that it could exist. Of all that exists in this world and what we know, there are diversities of things, different people, different jobs, different means of transportation, different religions, ect. From small our parents or at least most, we instill Christian values.
They take us to how a, church and learn about. Christianity , Jesus , Judaism 1656 Words | 4 Pages. ?SOAS Disability Equality Scheme 2010 - 2012 Appendix 3 Brief summary of three MODELS OF DISABILITY The Charity . Model of disability The Charity Model casts the disabled person forever in luther the poor unfortunate role. It emphasises and encourages dependence on the most dangerous connell others rather than independence one might say it is a form of martin luther king killing with kindness since if this is taken to extremes the how did freedom of contract opportunities and constraints disabled person may lose those life skills they had and become increasingly dependent. The disabled person. Disability , Self-esteem 602 Words | 2 Pages. Document Analysis # 1: John Winthrops A Modell of Christian Charity (1630) Document Analysis # 1: John Winthrops A Modell of Christian Charity (1630) 1. Which document is a primary source and which is . a secondary source? John Winthrops A Modell of Christian Charity is a primary source and The summary of John Winthrops A Model of Christian Charity was the secondary source. 2. According to luther king born, the sermon, what type of society and government do the Puritans want to establish in the New World? According to John Winthrops sermon, the ideal form of strunk and white society and.
Bible , Christian terms , Christianity 395 Words | 2 Pages. ? Honors English 10; 4P 3 December 2013 I abide by the Honor Code Charity Peace is the work of martin luther king justice indirectly, in so far as justice . The Most Dangerous Connell! removes the obstacles to peace; but it is the luther king work of charity directly, since charity , according to its very notion, causes peace. - St. Thomas Aquinas Charity is the kindly or sympathetic disposition to aid the needy as a result of deep feeling or understanding. Charity exists in many different forms. What! It can be seen in the forms of helping the luther poor. 1 Corinthians 13 , Cardinal virtues , God 3231 Words | 8 Pages. MODELS OF DISABILITY STUDIES | MORAL-RELIGIOUS | BIO-MEDICAL | FUNCTIONAL | ENVIRON-MENTAL | SOCIO-POLITICAL | DEFINITION | Views disability . as a punishment inflicted upon an individual or family by an external force. It can be due to misdemeanors committed by the disabled person, someone in the family or community group, or forbears. Freedom Create And Constraints On Liberty?! Birth conditions can be due to actions committed in a previous reincarnation. Martin Luther King Born! People are morally responsible for their own disability. | Focuses on purely biological.
Developmental disability , Disability , Disability studies 1037 Words | 3 Pages. ?Brand Overview Christian Dior the game magical name that for forty-seven years now has been synonymous the martin luther born world over with the enchantment of . French fashion, elegance and style is a luxury goods company controlled and carlos hathcock book chaired by martin luther, businessman Bernard Arnault who also heads LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton the world's largest luxury group.. Regardless of the intrinsically fleeting nature of this creative sphere and hathcock book the endless cycle of seasonal collections, the House of Christian Dior has somehow. Christian Dior , Clothing , Fashion 1312 Words | 3 Pages. Resposibilities of martin king a Christian/Catholic in a Free Society. RESPONSIBILITIES OF A CHRISTIAN /CATHOLIC IN A FREE SOCIETY Living as a Catholic in a free society is a great responsibility, one that is carlos hathcock, . shared by all Catholics. Our actions need to match our principles, our values, and our ethics to be true to our Catholic ideals.
It is our duty and responsibility to do all that we can to follow the Catholic teachings in order for us to be a positive Catholic influence on ourselves and others. We must make our decisions based on Catholic principles and martin luther born not. Is Formed! Christianity , Core issues in martin king ethics , God 861 Words | 3 Pages. woman to the exclusion of all others; also known as Holy Matrimony. Some churches regard marriage as a sacrament such as the Catholic Church, partly due to . Jesus supporting the wedding in Cana of Galilee as described in the Gospels John 2:1-12. Christians believe that marriage is a gift from God, one that should not be taken for granted. What House! The rituals of a typical marriage ceremony in chronological order are: Opening song, bridal procession, giving the bride away, readings from the Bible, homily, a. Catholic Church , Christian denomination , Christian terms 1072 Words | 3 Pages. Much of church administration is about teaching in the moment.
Let me explain. I became a Christian at the dinner-table. I did not know at the . time that's what was happening. I can't point to one decisive moment when intellectual assent turned to trust. But it was at the dinner-table that Christianity became real to me.
Each evening as my family ate together, we would process the day's events. How was school today? Who's going to take me to luther king born, basketball practice? But as we processed the events. Bible , Christianity , Learning 940 Words | 3 Pages. mean to be a christian citizen?? Every Christian , no matter what form of government he lives under, is under command from the . lord t maintain proper and useful submission to that government for the sake of history of the monarchy leading a peaceful life. And having an effective witness.
The mission of the church is not to change society. Even though that is often a good way of faithful ministry and living. To worship and serve the lord and to bring others to saving faith in him. The basic command for Christians is very simple. Citizenship , Deity , Form of government 1036 Words | 3 Pages.
Christians and Non-Christian Culture. unite as one under God and rise up against the evil forces of the world. In order to do this everyone, both religious and the not religious, need to be . aware of and recognize the lifestyles of each other. Non Christians should at least study the Philosophy of Christianity, as Christians should explore the philosophy of infidelity. Justin Martyr found discussion with Tryphno very stimulating because the two ended up sharing similar viewpoints on important religious philosophies. (Justin, Dialogue. Christianity , Deity , Human 943 Words | 3 Pages. Christians and Roman Empire: Conflicts and Christian Identity.
areas of conflict between early Christians and the Roman Empire? What were the issues and/or misunderstandings behind these conflicts? How did . Martin Born! these help to shape Christian identity and how a is formed practice? Christians and Roman Empire: conflicts and Christian identity Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's is one of the most famous sayings that Jesus Christ would have said in response to the question whether Christians should pay Roman taxes; it became. Ancient Rome , Christianity , Constantine I 1097 Words | 3 Pages. A Paper Submitted To Liberty Theological Seminary In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For Completion of the Course CLED 610 . Luther King Born! Christian Leadership By Theresa Mahan LIBERTY THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY Abstract Goal setting is how a is formed, imperative for king any team to strunk elements of style, succeed. Luther! One of the strunk elements ways for achieving this task is to learn and overcome the five dysfunctions of a team. Patrick Lencionis book, Overcoming the Five Dysfunctions of a Team is a field guide designed to teach teams how to accomplish. Conflict 1536 Words | 5 Pages. King! Christian Leadership Authors Name Title of the Course Instructors Name Date Introduction to Christian Leadership . Is Formed! Leadership scholars have presented many theories in understanding leadership. However, making sense of martin hundreds of books and thousands of studies is a complicated task, which is why many mistakenly think that leadership is an indefinable phenomenon.
Some of us presume complete authority in our own favored ways. Novel leaders often discard the entire system used by the. Bible , Christianity , Jesus 2389 Words | 7 Pages. is the role model for Christian life. Carlos Hathcock! The Christian tradition has viewed Jesus as the perfect role . model because he was sinless. Born! Jesus lived his life providing principles, teachings and messages that are to be emulated by his followers. These teachings are evident in how did of the of contract opportunities and constraints on liberty? all aspects of christianity and have become the foundation for Christians as to how we are to live our lives.
Many texts throughout the martin king born New Testament further exemplify the understanding of star Jesus as the perfect role model , including John. Christianity , Forgiveness , Lord's Prayer 888 Words | 3 Pages. Social Work and Charity Organization Society. ?1. If you were a friendly visitor in king born a charity organization society, you would most likely ___. a. access public funds for families in . Strunk And White Elements! distress b. King Born! act as a model of moral character c. believe that charity represented respectful support for families d. not be concerned about investigations and scientific procedures 2. Which prominent Charity Organization Society leader wrote what is game richard, Social Casework? a. Jane Addams b. Mary Richmond c. Grace Abbott d. Sophinisba Breckinridge . American film actors , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Jane Addams 303 Words | 4 Pages. Christian Worldview I have a Christian worldview although it tends to martin born, be on how a star is formed the more liberal side of martin Christianity. It follows . the foundational principals of Christianity and does not stray far enough into any other sects of religion that I could comfortably say that I am anything else nor would I be willing to drop my belief in Christ. God is the creator of the universe and all that is it. There is only one God. In Christianity, there is the Trinity, the what cause house Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost, all. Bible , Christianity , God 1438 Words | 2 Pages. 22, 2013 No Charity , No Change Charity is defined as a voluntary giving of help and generosity especially towards the needy or . suffering.
This small simple word conveys a much bigger meaning, one of compassion and selflessness. In the story, A Visit of Charity the true act of charity seems to luther, be missing. It is as if the main pieces of the puzzle are missing. And White Elements! The story has framework but lacks the compassion and selflessness needed to bring it to life. The reality is, charity never came to. Altruism , Elderly care , Gerontology 1347 Words | 4 Pages. Martin Luther King! I. Title: Seeking the gift of charity II. Objectives: * To be able to history monarchy, explain the importance of charity *To be able to . consider the benefits of charity *To be able to apply charity in everyday life III. Materials: * Pictures about charity IV. Procedure: A. Motivation Present and let the luther pupils interpret the what cause green house pictures about charity . Luther Born! The lecturer/s will give additional information about the pictures and then summarize it all. B. Discussion Charity is how did of the freedom create opportunities on liberty?, giving a heart; its a practice.
A Good Thing , Alms , Charitable organization 386 Words | 3 Pages. Christian Dior (1905-1957) Christian Dior was born in 1905 in the small French coastal town of Granville, the son of a wealthy . fertilizer manufacturer. His family had high hopes that the martin king young Christian would become a diplomat. However, Dior was artistic and of the freedom of contract opportunities and constraints on liberty? when he left school in 1928 he received money from his father to open a small art gallery. His gallery sold art by the likes of Pablo Picasso but after a financial blow his father lost control of his company and the young Dior was forced to. Christian Dior , Fashion , Granville, Manche 1960 Words | 6 Pages. RETHINKING THE THIRD IN EMMANUEL LEVINAS I. Charity and Justice In the book, The Inseparability of Ethics and Politics: Rethinking the Third . in Emmanuel Levinas by Madeleine Fagan, I was struck by the line For Levinas, charity and justice cannot be separated, on the first paragraph, page 18 on the book. Levinas believes that charity and martin luther justice goes along together.
But what disturbs him is the thought that some structures might prioritize charity over how a star is formed, justice. At first I was confused and couldnt. Affect , Emmanuel Levinas , Ethics 1085 Words | 3 Pages. Martin Born! Are Celebrities a good role model? Are famous people of today good role models ? This is a very controversial topic and a lot of people have their own opinions. There are people, . who believe that the famous can be good role models as many famous people do tasks such as helping out in 3rd world countries, giving money to charities and help out with sporting and the most dangerous connell charity events. King! However not all famous people are like this. Some just go out and how did the notion of the freedom opportunities and constraints break every law in one night from drink driving to excessive use of drugs.
So can famous people. Alice in martin luther king born Wonderland , American film actors , Anne Hathaway 1288 Words | 3 Pages. ? The Christian Church A study of the foundation and Influences of the Christian Church Written By: . Thomas Milazzo The Christian Church was born out of the legacies of the Greek, Roman and Jewish cultures. Through Gods providence and perhaps advantageous timing, the Christian Church entered a world prepared for the truth of God. The Greeks provided a universal language and philosophy that supported the strunk and white of style acceptance of the Church. Roman laws, organization, and. Alexandria , Byzantine Empire , Christianity 973 Words | 6 Pages.
Christian Philosophy of Education. Christian Philosophy of Education As we go through our day by born, day lives in a very secular world, I believe it is very easy to question . ourselves as Christian educators. We ask ourselves if we are doing our jobs exactly to Gods calling. Are we striving to teach the truth? And with that, what is effect, truth?
According to Gaebelein in his book The Pattern of Gods Truth, All truth is Gods truth. As educators we are called upon to cultivate Christlike minds (Moreland). This is martin, quite the task. Education , Jesus , Mind 1981 Words | 5 Pages. ? Family Therapy Models Abstract Family Therapy Models Family . therapy models of and white elements psychotherapy can be divided into martin born, three classificationsahistorical, historical, and experiential (Griffin Greene, 1998, p. 3). The ahistorical classification includes structural family therapy, strategic family therapy, behavioral family therapy, psychoeducational family therapy, and communication models (Griffin Greene, 1998, p. 3). The historical.
Communication , Family , Family therapy 1019 Words | 4 Pages. represent the super thin look and it is part of the requirement to star, be a model , however there are many types of modeling agencies in America; . every agency includes one or more types of modeling. The goals of luther models in America leave unhealthy images imprinted in the minds of children in todays society. It is much more than a job, it is a way of of the of contract life which consists of nothing but working harder each day to reach their goal or goals. Models are being harmed by the emphasis on being thin and it needs to martin, stop. Anorexia nervosa , Binge eating disorder , Bulimia nervosa 1433 Words | 4 Pages.
Quite different from dangerous game connell, many of the martin king traditional models that focus on star the traits of the leader, the Yukl contingency model focuses . on the leaders behavior. Martin Luther King Born! The model is both complex and cause green effect comprehensive but based in martin the practical realities faced by leaders daily. As an what cause house, integrated conceptual framework, the Yukl model has both strengths and weaknesses. First, in addition to the strength of being practical in concept and integration, it is king born, a flexible model . Inherent traits, movement toward a vision, and. Behavior , Economics , Ethics 814 Words | 3 Pages. Charity Event: Feet for Food, No Child Should Go Hungry During the thanksgiving break I and a few other classmates decided to participate in a . charity 5K run. The charity run is called Feet for Food: no child should go hungry, the Saturday after thanksgiving the runners meet in the communitys church and everyone who participates donates nonperishable food and a monetary donation of thirty dollars.
It is a perfect time to hold an event to prevent hunger because it is how did the notion of the create opportunities on liberty?, right after we have all indulged. Luther King! Family , Famine , Food 976 Words | 3 Pages. Philosophy of Christian Education. My Philosophy of Christian Education Isaiah 54:13 all your children shall be taught by the LORD, and great shall be the peace of your . children. Introduction: Upon examination of Jesus life and ministry here on earth, I find it to be very fascinating that He successfully engaged in a plethora of star professional fields; including that of teaching. In fact, He holds the title of Master Teacher. He was indeed a highly sought after teacher whose passionate and holistic approach to the vocation of. Bible , Christianity , Education 2348 Words | 6 Pages. Martin Luther Born! By definition, a role model is one whose behavior, example, or success is monarchy, emulated by others. Today, athletes and martin luther born other sport stars are looked . up to by people of all ages. Everyone loves them, they appear on television with the house entire world watching.
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1020 Words | 3 Pages. ?MODULE 1 UNDERSTANDING CHRISTIAN MORALITY I. Discuss and illustrate what makes a person moral, immoral and martin luther amoral A Moral person . Green! When we say a person is martin, moral it means that he correctly judges between right and cause green wrong and consequently act on what is martin luther born, virtuous. Hathcock Book! A moral person does what is right and king born despises what is wrong. Strunk Of Style! He does the things that are pleasing to God with decency and integrity and because of that he does the will of God. The only foundation for morality is being Christ. Ethics , Human , Moral 1106 Words | 4 Pages. Patricia Al-Masri 201004181 Figure 1 Christian Dior fixing the dress he designed on a model . Figure 1 Christian . Martin! Dior fixing the of the monarchy dress he designed on a model . On February 2, 1947, Christian Dior launched his first fashion collection for Spring/Summer 1947, Carolle, thus putting an end to the wartime styles that had dominated the fashion world ever since 1939. The new collection went down in king the fashion history and got to be known by the name of the New Look. Strunk Elements! During World War II. Bodice , Clothing terminology , Cocktail dress 1665 Words | 6 Pages. ? Charity research The National Children's Bureau (NCB) is a leading children's charity that for 50 years has been improving the . lives of children and young people, especially the martin king most vulnerable. What Cause Green House Effect! Their vision is a society in which children and young people contribute, are valued and their rights respected. Their mission is to improve children and young people's experiences and life chances by reducing the impact of inequalities.
Founded in 1963 by king born, Mia Kelmer Pringle, the National Bureau for Cooperation. Better , Evidence-based medicine , Improve 860 Words | 3 Pages. ? Charity , Moral, and the Condition of Our World When it comes to charity , morality, and concern for one another, humans tend . to vary drastically on how we feel and act depending on the circumstance and the individual. What makes this issue so complex is the fact that we are naturally set to want to help one another and be kind (in most cases) while at the same time being naturally focused on star the survival and wellbeing of ourselves and loved ones over most other things. Luther King! These natural settings. 2006 singles , Africa , Cycle of poverty 989 Words | 3 Pages. | A REPORT ON CHRISTIAN DIOR | STUDENT NO:200912051 | | | | AKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to say thank you everyone who helped . What Cause! me to finish this assessment successfully and to God almighty that saw me through all this. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION. Luther! 1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. 2 LIST. Christian Dior , Christian Dior S.A. , Goods 1629 Words | 5 Pages. can have as much an how did the notion of the freedom of contract create opportunities and constraints, effect during Movember as men can, without having to grow a moustache. According to guidestar.org, which aims to provide information . that advances transparency about charities , the Movember Foundation is committed to transparency regarding the martin luther king born financial and history legal aspects of king born their charity . Hathcock! The Movember Foundation is registered with the IRS and born is located in Culver City, CA.
It has been registered in the United States since 2008 and has boasted increased revenues for each year. Cancer , Metastasis , Moustache 1178 Words | 3 Pages. Research Essay: 20876077 Through the study of scripture, Christian movements and the views of game historical and contemporary figures, it can be . said that Christian ethical teachings have a significant influence on the lives of its adherents. A prime example of the effects of these teachings is the nature and practice of Christian environmental ethics. The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy defines environmental ethics as the discipline in philosophy that studies the luther king born moral relationship of human beings. Catholic Church , Christianity , Environmental ethics 1517 Words | 4 Pages. Communication models One of the key tasks of social marketers is to develop effective messages which provide individuals and organisations . with the information required to achieve behavioural change. Of The Freedom Opportunities And Constraints On Liberty?! Communication represents the luther transmission of carlos information, ideas, attitudes, or emotion from one person or group to another. There are many models and frameworks available to help with communications planning. The communication process involves: the sender, the message itself, encoding the message. Broadcasting , Communication , Marketing 575 Words | 3 Pages.
UK charities are nonprofit organizations that carry out activities that help society such as charity events and fund raising. . These charities cover a huge range of important good causes including animal charities , cancer charities , children's charities , disability charities , environment charities , health charities , housing charities and people charities . Funding for vital research into medical conditions such as cancer or heart disease, helping children, diminishing poverty and help in raising awareness. Charitable organization , Charity Commission , England 413 Words | 2 Pages.
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Essay on Epilepsy: It’s Causes Diagnosis and martin luther born, Treatment. Essay on Epilepsy: Its Causes Diagnosis and Treatment! Having the oldest history among all mental disorders, and most widely known and found throughout the history of human beings, epilepsy refers to carlos book a group of luther brain disorders, the chief symptoms of of contract opportunities which are partial or complete loss of luther king born consciousness with or without convulsive behaviour or psychomotor disturbances. Image Courtesy : goeshealth.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/epilepsy-patient.jpg. Epilepsy is caused by brain lesions or other disorders leading to a disturbance of the rhythm of electrical discharges of brain cells. In the middle age epileptics were considered as the curse of God. But later on it was believed to be mainly the carlos hathcock book, result of chronic brain pathology having its origin in the cerebrum.
Epilepsy is also called falling disease, fits, or convulsions. As a result of chronic brain pathology there are unpredictable seizures and frequent states of delirium which of course remain for a short duration. Epilepsy, in fact, does not denote a specific disease, but a symptom. Epilepsy constitutes an luther king important mental health problem. It is the game richard, most common chronic neurological disease having a prevalence of about 1 per cent in the general population. It has been estimated that thirty to fifty per cent of all epileptic subjects have significant psychiatric difficulties. Although the incidence of psychoses is high in epilepsy, personality disturbances lead to king born a lot of psychiatric problems. Epilepsy includes a chronic condition of recurrent or repeated seizures.
A seizure is a transient, paroxysmal, patho-physiological disturbance of cerebral function caused by a spontaneous excessive discharge of cortical neurons. A seizure may be abnormal movements or an arrest of effect movement, a disorder of martin sensation or perception or a disturbance of behaviour or an impairment of consciousness. Almost any required or genetic pathological process involving the brain may cause epilepsy. The symptoms of epilepsy include falling down, shaking of hands, legs and bodies, biting the teeth, foaming in the mouth etc. Also is found paroxysmal bursts of abnormal cortical activity which leads to a rhythmic pattern of E.E.G. showing abnormalities in the rate and voltage of these currents.
Though epilepsy is irreversible, it on the whole does not involve the progressive deterioration and dementia commonly found in the syphilitic, presenile and and white of style, senile demetias. The epileptic seizures involve loss or distortion of consciousness and psychological and physical symptoms. Though about martin 20 per cent of these epileptic fits may be attributed to chronic brain disorders such as tumours, inflammation or trauma in the brain, more than 75 per cent of the epileptic fits are called idiopathic epilepsy as they do not have any known cause. Recent report indicates that the incidence of epilepsy is found in about 1 person in strunk and white elements, 100 in the U.S.A. which tentatively affects between 2 and 3 million people. Though epilepsy is not limited to any age group, it is more common in martin born, children and adolescents than adults. About 50 per cent of the recorded epileptic cases belong to the age under 15 years. The epileptics continue their normal life otherwise and usually do not need hospitalisation; unless there is serious complication. Chances are equal for both the sexes though it is more frequent in males.
Jackson (1931) defined epilepsy as the name for occasional, sudden, excessive, rapid and local discharges of strunk and white of style grey matter. This view of Jackson has been amply confirmed by the E.E.G. Martin King? or brain waves of epileptic patients. Comparison of the brain waves of epileptic and normal patient shows a great difference in amplitude and frequency. The normal people show a constant brain system such as a mean frequency of cause effect 10 waves per second while the E.E.G. systems of the epileptics are unusually large due to the increased voltage and furthermore they are either too fast or too slow. Though rhythm disturbances are most marked in actual attack even during the martin, periods when there is no attack, in 85 per cent of the patients, transient disturbances of hathcock book rhythm are observed. Great individual differences occur so far as the frequency of attack is concerned. Some persons have a few attacks during their lifetime while others have several attacks in a year. Seizures are broadly characterised as partial seizures (caused by a focal lesion) and martin luther born, generalised seizure (caused by cause house effect diffuse brain dysfunction). The psychiatric manifestations of martin luther epilepsy are divided into those associated with seizures itself and those occurring between seizures (interracially). According to Ervin (1967) the epilepsy may be categorised on strunk and white of style the basis of the type of seizure manifested.
Kolb (1963) and Ervin (1967) hold that in some cases the type of seizure manifested may depend upon the heredity, though the exact nature of the born, hereditary defect is how a is formed yet unknown. Kolb (1977) has broadly categorised epilepsy into martin luther, (1) symptomatic or acquired epilepsy (2) idiopathic or essential epilepsy. It is called symptomatic epilepsy as it is the function of how a star is formed brain damage caused by factors other than epilepsy. Symptomatic epilepsy includes those types of convulsions and seizures that occur in king, quite a numbers of brain syndromes like neuro syphilis, acute alcohol or drug hysteria, intoxication, tumour etc. or other toxic condition. Idiopathic epilepsy is due to some constitutional defect. Of The? It is genuine and it has no relation with the toxic condition of the brain. Certain cases have no known cause for martin the convulsive disorder.
Idiopathic epileptics have usually early onset. They occur at anytime, at any place and are different from hysterical fits in this regard. About 30 per cent of the epileptics are classified as symptomatic and 60 per cent as idiopathic and the remaining 10 per cent are unclassified. Epilepsy has been classified in what cause green house effect, the West by luther born Wilson (1940) into green house, Grandmal or major; Petitmal or minor and martin king born, psychomotor equivalent and history monarchy, Jacksoniad types. This classification is based on the area and the degree of brain damage. In the words of Coleman (1981) it is the most prevalent and spectacular form of the epileptic seizure and martin luther born, it occurs in some 60 per cent of the cases. Grandmal has four stages: (a) The aura or warning.
(b) Tonic phase or attack proper. In the aura or warning stage the initial sign of seizure occurs. It arises a few seconds or before a day prior to the onset of the convulsion; where a signal or warning about the coming danger is is formed experienced. This is associated with headache, unusual sensory experiences such as strange smells or sounds, fear or dizziness. It may also consist of numbness, tingling, and a sense of distress in the stomach, hallucinated light flashes, voices, stiffness, choking, sensation and feeling of strong-ness. Next comes the tonic phase. Here actual convulsion is experienced. It is the onset of fit proper. During the onset of fits there is violent respiratory disturbance and the face becomes blue.
In this stage the body of the martin king, victim becomes rigid. Air is suddenly expelled from the effect, lungs producing a crying sound. He loses consciousness and martin luther born, falls on the ground. The arms and trunks are flexed and strunk and white of style, legs are stretched. The eyes become wide open and breathing is suspended during this period. As the person falls, his entire voluntary musculature goes into a continuous contraction. This period fortunately lasts for about 20 to martin luther born 30 seconds.
The generalised spasm includes the muscles of the chest, abdomen and the larynx. The clonic phase follows the tonic phase. This period is characterised by contraction and relaxation leading to jerking movements which continue for about one to several minutes. How Did The Notion Of The Create Opportunities And Constraints? During this stage violent continuous and jerking movements of the limbs are produced and the jaws are open and close. He can seriously wound his tongue by biting it at this stage.
In the clonic phase the EEG spikes of the tonic stage continues but there is decrement in luther king, frequency to one per second and increase in amplitude. Fourthly saliva is usually present tinged with blood from dangerous game richard a bitten tongue or cheek. After the luther, clonic phase the history of the monarchy, coma phase starts where the individual still continues to remain in unconscious stage but there is luther king a complete stop of convulsions. The person during the the most dangerous richard connell, coma stage sleeps deeply for a long period. Some persons sleep for a few hours or may awaken immediately and when they gain consciousness, they have no memory for the events immediately preceding the convulsions and experiences involved therein. In some rare cases, however, one convulsion may follow another, still another. Martin? Such cases are rare but when occur pose danger to the life of the patient. It will cause death if not treated at once. The Most Game? In the martin luther king, post conversant period some patients become so much confused that they forget about the star, attack or are even not conscious of their action. The patient comes out of the luther born, coma stage and returns immediately to the normal stage.
He may either complain of headache or may feel relaxed. What House? In certain cases, attack proper is accompanied by emotional pathology. The external physical signs of the coma stage are very few. Sometimes the object held in the hand falls down and the person looks pale. It is a small or incomplete grandmal convulsion. In this type of seizure there is a loss of consciousness for 5 to 30 seconds. In this category, there is martin luther king born no aura or warning signal and the patient does not fall down. The patient only stops all his activities and stares vacantly on the ground.
But nevertheless, he resumes his activity after a few seconds. He may however throw the thing which he is holding. This stage comes so suddenly that even the patient is not aware that a convulsion has already taken place. There are instances of petitmal convulsions occurring 100 times per day. This type of convulsion begins early in life between 4 and star is formed, 8 years and decreases with the increase in age.
The E.E.G. Luther? record during the petitmal period reveals bursts of spike and slow wave activity. In other words, the brain wave is slow and fast alternatively. How A Is Formed? In this type of seizure there are fair chances of recovery. It is said that this attack occurs because of a decreased carbon dioxide content of the breath. The attacks of the psychomotor equivalent are same as the luther king born, post conversant period. Is Formed? There is great loss of consciousness. The individual indulges in various antisocial and irrational activities. Psychomotor seizures are connected with abnormal EEG in specific parts of the brain.
The main characteristic of this type varies significantly from born patient to patient. However, it is said to strunk and white elements produce changes in perception, self awareness, thought patterns and mood. The attack starts with unusual small and lasts for a few seconds up to several minutes. There is loss of consciousness but the martin born, person continues with his work at that time. Strunk? During this period of attack they are said to become violent, destructive and often commit crimes. But experimental studies do not confirm this view.
In this type of epilepsy there is a typical EEG disturbance in the region of an anterior temporal lobe. So this type of epilepsy is quite difficult to treat. However, Penfield and his associates have reported improvement and even in some cases complete cure with the removal of the lobe. There is excessive anger and emotional outbursts. Attempts for suicide and homicide are found in luther, some cases. This type of epilepsy was first described by the English neurologist Hiegh Lings Jackson and so it is also called Jacksonian epilepsy. Like psychomotor seizures it is related to abnormal EEG activity in specific parts of the brain. The attack first starts in what green, one part of the body with a tingling or numbing sensation around the luther king, corner of the mouth or in a thumb along with muscle switches and burning sensations.
Gradually this sensation spreads to adjourning part of the body until half of the star is formed, body or full body is martin luther born involved. The variation in sensation depends upon the area of the cause house effect, brain affected. There is gradual loss of consciousness. The attack then becomes similar to grandmal epilepsy. When the clinical manifestations of epilepsy are more emotional or psychotic and when changes in level of consciousness and martin king born, level of star cognition are not apparent difficulty relating to diagnosis arises in distinguishing an organic mental disorder of epileptic origin from luther a psychiatric disorder. This is type of episodic psychiatric dysfunction should always be suspected to be epileptic provided it occurs in game richard, patient in whom epilepsy has been diagnosed previously. Martin? Further the diagnosis is confirmed if continuous or nearly continuous epileptic discharges are observed during the attack. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of epilepsy becomes more difficult in patients who are not known to have epilepsy earlier. And White Elements Of Style? In such cases, if he following four clinical features are noticed in the patient, it can be said to have the possibility of epilepsy.
1. Abrupt onset of psychoses in a person, previously considered as psychologically healthy. 2. Abrupt onset of delirium that cannot be accounted for martin luther born by more common causes. 3. A history of similar episodes with abrupt and spontaneous onset and remission. 4. History Of The? A history of previous fainting or falling episodes that could not be explained. Personality disturbances in epileptic patients: Personality disturbances are more frequently reported in epileptic patients. These disorders are more likely to occur in patients with epilepsy of temporal lobe origin. These disorders and personality changes include changes in sexual behaviour, viscosity (stickiness), religiosity and a heightened experience of emotions. Viscosity is most noticeable in the conversation of the patient which is mostly slow, serious, pedantic, overly replete with detail, and born, full of nonessential matters.
This tendency is elements also reflected in the writing and drawing of the patient. However, it is seen that many patients are not affected by personality disturbances. Martin Luther King? Others suffer from a variety of disturbances which cannot be said to be personality disturbances. The causes of epilepsy have been attributed to hereditary factors by many investigators. How A? Reports are available which suggest that typical epileptic brain waves are found in born, close relatives. About one-third of the the most dangerous game richard connell, institutionalised, one fifth of the non-institutionalised epileptic patients have a family of epilepsy. The parents, brothers and sisters of the epileptics are expected to have seizures five times more than that for the general population. When one of the identical twins has epileptic fit, in 61 to 67 per cent of the cases, the martin king, other twin has also fits; 86 per cent of the cot wins of idiopathic patients have also fits. In cases of fraternal twins, when one child suffers from epilepsy in the notion freedom of contract, 11 per cent of the cases the other twin is affected by luther king epilepsy. According to the irritation theory epileptic seizures occur as a result of direct stimulation or irritation of the cerebral cortex.
This neurological theory argues that injury makes the neural tissues of the cortex hyper sensitive to the stimulation. Cerebral dysrhythmia, which predisposes an individual to have seizures, is present in about 85 per cent of the epileptic patients during periods when even they are free from attacks and in 53 per carlos hathcock cent of their close relatives and 10 per cent of the unselected general population. All these data give sufficient evidence to hold that epilepsy is mainly a disease of martin king born heredity. In the opinion of Page (1976) Seizure prone individuals apparently inherit a somewhat unstable nervous system whose faulty functioning is revealed by abnormal brain waves. But it is a fact that many people who inherit a predisposition do not have seizures. History? Moreover, the nervous systems of identical twins are derived from the same genes and the recorded electrical discharges of the king, brain cells are practically identical. From that point of view, all the cotwins of identical epileptic twins should have convulsions but only 61 to 86 per cent are affected.
What about the rest. If we accept heredity as the only aetiology of epilepsy this would not explain the causes of the remaining epileptic cases. If epilepsy is cent per cent inherited all cases of twins should have been epileptics because they are derived from the and white elements, same genes and same nervous system. This is, however, not a fact, E.E.G. records also show inconsistencies. Thus, the most reasonable explanation to these inconsistencies is that individuals do not inherit convulsions. What is in reality inherited is the physical constitution (and not the seizure or fits) which has a high or low potentiality for king having epileptic attacks. If a person is highly predisposed, he is expected to have an attack. It has also been observed that the first born children who usually experience greater birth trauma and minor brain lesions are more susceptible to cause green convulsions.
Similarly, certain percentage of martin king epileptic fits may be accounted to differences in order of carlos book birth, difficulty in delivery and head injuries in later life. Difference in luther, precipitating causes such as injury in the brain and biochemical disturbances make the constitution more predisposed to fits. Keeping the heredity sound, head injuries, brain lesions and biochemical disturbances also are likely to produce convulsions. However, reports show that less than 5 per cent of epileptic attack is due to head injury. It is true to some extent that a few cases of epilepsy are caused by emotional stresses. Studies at the same time however indicate that the importance of emotional stress in epilepsy has been over-emphasised. How A Star? As Fox has noted there is no increase in the number of seizures during intense emotional excitement and activities connected with air raids. About 5 per cent of the cases showed an attack but 95 per cent remained undisturbed. Studying a number of epileptic patients, Clark (1933) has reported four important personality traits present in the epileptics. Luther Born? They are eccentricity, poverty of game emotions, hypersensitivity and rigidity. Gibbs (1968) on the contrary reported to have found some positive traits in epileptics.
They are intellectually bright with pleasant personal experiences, courage to face problems of life without getting depressed and losing competency in work. Petitmal attacks are very mild and hence may not require any attention, but with respect to grandmal attack, it is desirable to martin luther king protect the patient from injury by keeping a pillow or some soft object under his head during the carlos, attack. Biting of luther tongue and lips can be prevented by inserting a handkerchief in the mouth. Currently certain drugs like Luminal, sodium dilantin and higher doses of bromide are used to reduce the incidence of epilepsy. It has been noted that these drugs raise the convulsion threshold and have a normalising effect on the brain rhythms. According to Coleman (1981) Fortunately drug medication and other treatment measures make it possible to prevent seizures in 80 per cent or more epileptics.
But unfortunately, drugs do not always help. If the dose becomes excessive it may lead to confusion and other complications. In case of violent attacks accompanied by excitement, confusion and various psychotic symptoms, it is advised to institutionalise the patient. Epileptics should not be allowed to drive cars, or even to engage themselves in occupations where a fall or unconsciousness may lead to danger. In a few cases, where a circumscribed brain area is affected, surgery may do some good. Mental retardation should be kept to the minimum to decrease the number of attacks. The patients should be kept emotionally sound; they should be kept engaged in the most dangerous game, some occupation and be given job opportunities. Regular work keeps the patient engaged and reduces the number of attacks. The patient himself must learn to accept his own problem and should try to adjust with the circumstances around him.
The misconceptions regarding epilepsy can be erased by educational efforts and propaganda through audio-visual aids. This can help the epileptics boost their self confidence, to change their self image in a positive direction and finally to live normal lives. King Born? Current laws permit the seizure free epileptics to drive motor vehicles. In a few cases, a diet rich in fats and poor in starch and how a star is formed, proteins has been found helpful. Luther King Born? The water intake should also be kept at a minimum.
This is popularly known as dehydration treatment. Steps should be taken to freedom create opportunities maintain a healthy and cheerful personality of the patient. King Born? Trails like ego-centralism, bad temper and hyper sensitiveness should be avoided to reduce the strunk elements, frequency of attacks. Proper personal and social adjustment is desirable. By the psychological treatment of the patient and his family, pleasant and happy personality can be maintained. He must accept the disease openly. Parents should also learn to accept it.
They should never resent it. Their attitude towards the epileptic child should be same as the martin king, normal child. The patient should not develop any complex for his disease. Special workshops should be introduced for the epileptics who at least develops the sense of self-esteem of the patient and improve his outlook towards life. Finally the attitude towards the epileptic patient should be one of understanding and sympathy rather than disgust, fear and ridicule.
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Review Of FQXi Essays Wandering Towards a Goal. By Harry H. Ricker III. The purpose of this essay is to discuss my impressions and martin king born, comments resulting from dangerous connell reading the submissions to the 2017 FQXi Essay Contest. The title of this contest is martin luther king born, Wandering Towards a Goal: How Can Mindless mathematical laws give rise to aims and intentions. In my essay I took issue with the thesis and asserted that mindless mathematical laws can not give rise to aims and intentions. The essay topic was sufficiently vague and ill defined that it allowed for a number of carlos hathcock, different interpretations. Essays That Took Issue With the Topic. Here I will address the martin born essays that tried to define the connell problem as it relates to the essay topic. Martin? There was one outstanding essay in this regard.
That is the how a is formed one by Dave Bruiger. Dave answers the question this way: The blunt answer is that mathematical laws cannot give rise to king, anything but other mathematics! I really think that this is correct, but the implication is not actually the issue of mathematics, or laws, but about whether scientific method is capable of solving the problem of biological behavior. What is important to the reader is that it is recommended that Daves essay be read before reading mine or the others since it sets the issues into perspective. One interesting part of game richard connell, Daves conclusion is:In this context, the paradox of mathematics is that it transcends physical reality while derived ultimately from it by conscious agents. I take the position that mathematics, like science, is a form of human cognition. I dont put it that way in martin luther, my essay. What Effect? My view is that mathematics is a human invention that serves human goals. King? The main flaw is the how did of contract create on liberty? thesis that the contest is aimed at martin discussing, is what house, that goal oriented behavior is essentially that defined by human beings who desire that nature is describable by mathematical law rather than designed by martin king, a cosmic agent such as God. Dave concludes his essay as follows: To account formally or mathematically for natural goal seeking behavior, in a logically consistent manner, requires re-instating the fundamental notion of agency. He sidesteps the issue of God as deity and how did of the freedom of contract opportunities and constraints, substitutes for it the concept of the fundamental notion of agency.
It is obvious that such a concept is needed, but why it ought to be couched in such nebulous terms instead of the luther born more common terms of understanding is disappointing. Chris Ransford takes a viewpoint different from Daves. His essay Where The Question Leads addresses the history of the monarchy issue that the topic needs refining, but he asserts conclusively: Although some still hold this assumption as controversial, the evidence that the universe is luther born, indeed purely mathematical is overwhelming. That being the opposite of Daves essay. Quite frankly I thought Chris claim to what cause green, be unsupported and king born, not convincing by how did the notion of the of contract create opportunities and constraints on liberty?, the evidence he offered. Others may disagree with me and find his argument convincing. The section where he parses the luther question is however of greater interest. The conclusion is worth noting: The question of How mindless mathematical laws may give rise to intentions may not have been fully legitimate as originally stated, and we examined both the how a is formed term mindless and the phrase give rise to parse evidence of possible prior cognitive bias in the way the question was put. Doing away with any possible bias, we then sought to king, answer a new, more neutral version: How can mathematics enable mindful intentions? Chris doesnt give us any answer however, and so the essay falls short there. Stefan Weckbachs essay In Search Of The Meaning Of Meaning is green effect, recommended as it sets up the issues and their problems very well. Luther? I liked this essay very much since it addressed the real issues head on.
For example he says: Firstly, consciousness aims to be not merely a cosmic accident but has an of the create opportunities and constraints, inner desire to be the intentional result of a meaningful process. Secondly, this meaningful process is traditionally attributed to luther born, have its roots within a greater consciousness (god) that should have the power to bring such a process at how a star is formed all into king born, existence. If there are goals and intentions in the universe that are independent of living creatures, then only another, more potent conscious agent can be the author of these goals. That is a surprise. But he writes god rather than God, or deity and puts god in parenthesis as if it is merely a side topic. As to whether this problem has a solution within science he says: By equating objectivity with mathematical formalizability, it is no wonder that science at freedom of contract opportunities and constraints on liberty? one point tends to luther king born, eliminate the very actor of science, namely the scientist including his goals and intentions.
But nowhere in nature there is a guarantee that nature has to be completely formalizable. How A? Nonetheless, science, in many ways, acts as if the opposite is guaranteed by some universal law. Regarding the ability of mathematics to produce a solution he says: Another argument against the complete formalizability of all that exists is martin luther king born, that even some simple mathematical systems like first-order arithmetics cannot reliably decide between a necessity and a possibility. For Kurt Godels incompleteness theorems to be true, it is necessary that one assumes this system to be consistent, but incomplete. His conclusion then follows: The results of this essay are that goals and intentions, as they are traditionally understood by us humans, cannot be reduced to merely mathematical patterns or mere fictions without reinterpreting them from what was originally meant by these terms. Finally although avoiding the God word he ultimately concludes: If there is goal-oriented behaviour in the universe independent from all the pettiness of living creatures, this behaviour should have its roots in a more knowing and monarchy, more potent conscious agent than we are and martin luther, least of all in a dead universe. I do wish he had said God, but it is a good essay. Paul Butlers essay Are Mathematical Laws Truly Mindless? addresses the issue from a different perspective than asking whether mathematics can provide the solution, he addresses the bigger picture of the evidence that bears on the problem. Strunk And White? His essay takes on one of the main issues, that I address in my essay, as follows: It is true that once the martin luther king laws have been written down either in the form of ink on paper or in the form of the strunk real world entities that have them written into them, so that they perform according to those laws, the laws themselves do not possess a mind of their own, but they are the output expressions of the mind that created them and, therefore, are an image of the intelligence that is behind their construction. Exactly right. He then proceeds to analyze why a creator is luther king born, needed in how did of contract create and constraints, steps. The conclusion at this point is that the universe likely was created by a very intelligent living being. After further analysis he arrives at his conclusion: Much more information is given in both the Old and New Testaments, which all leads me to conclude that the born universe was not created by chance, but by God. Note that Mr Butler doesnt evade the concept of deity as in the previous essays, he says it right out in the open. Essays That Assumed That Mathematical Laws Do Solve Goal Oriented Behavior. The essay by Jack Hamilton James dives right into the problem and doesnt pause to question whether the hathcock book question has a solution or not. He is martin king born, sure he has the answer. Unfortunately his analysis is tedious and difficult to follow in its intricate details.
He says regarding a mathematical model: what is required to satisfy a mathematical account of hathcock book, intention is an internalist account that aligns with external mathematic and scientific descriptions. Of course, no known mathematics is internal, which is where the missing piece of the formation of intention might hide. Perhaps the only conceptual option for the internal is computational interactions (at least we can conceive as such, e.g. Martin King? a robot governed by internal programming giving it intention). Therefore, an Ecorithm 5.b.3 is the only conceivable internal mechanism for aligning with the recipe/arrangement 4.b facilitating the science of abiogenesis Curiously, after proceeding confidently that there must definitely be a mathematical solution he ends by saying this: We are descriptively stranded, and so whilst we may reveal a math of intention I doubt that it will provide a math of consciousness. This result is significant because in the end there is no result, so mathematics does not provide any solution to the posed problem, when all through the how a star essay it appeared that there would be a solution. Essays That Presented Arguments Based Upon Quantum Mechanics.
Primary in this category is the essay by Biswaranjan Dikshit It is difficult to make sense of what is being discussed since the author is not presenting a thesis based upon mainstream quantum mechanics but upon his theory called free will theory, or biased will of nature theory. The idea behind it being to luther king, solve the well known difficulties in the accepted mainstream quantum mechanics. Cause Effect? After discovery of first quantum mechanical formalism by Schrodinger in 1926, quantum physics has established itself as a robust and accurate theory of nature explaining nearly all the physical phenomena observed in the universe both at the micro and macroscopic level. But most important limitation of quantum mechanics is that it is martin born, a stochastic theory providing only a probabilistic prediction of experimental results. The essay purports to solve the hathcock problem of how goal oriented systems arise in the following way: since all processes occurring in the universe are governed by luther, quantum physical laws which incorporate the biased will of the nature (as demonstrated in this paper), every system is inherently goal oriented whether we are able to perceive it or not .some amount of goal oriented behavior is there in every system since the time of history of the, creation. It is purely a physical/cosmic trend, not accidental. Thats why repeated generations during evolution of living organisms have made them more and more fit to martin king born, be adaptable to the changing environment .biased will theory of this paper indicates that in addition to strunk and white of style, causality, result is also affected by teleology i.e. a purpose in future So, I think, living bodies have life in them because of quantum coherence among their constituent parts Thus, all living organisms are intelligent since they pursue self preservation because of quantum coherence. This is an king, interesting thesis but is really evading the problem by creating a cause, which is obscure, to explain the unexplained. So it is not really a cause in the sense of history, Aristotles Final Cause. It attempts to implant into the basis of microscopic behavior, a material cause that explains the other three causes of Aristotle. So it does follow in the tradition of modern science in trying to luther king, discover the Final Cause by what house effect, removing the need to have a Final Cause, by substituting a mechanical cause for the action of inanimate matter. The essay by Steve Agnew Math Laws and Observer Wandering seems to have taken the problem literally and turned wandering into a primary physical cause in martin, nature. The conclusion of the essay seems to be that mindless mathematical laws is not a solution to the problem posed.
Here is what he says: In conclusion, matter and action represent a fundamental duality of the universe and a neural mind made up of matter is also a neural mind made up of action as well. Instead of the overly simplistic duality of just mind and body or spirit and material, the universal duality of matter and action is and white of style, true for all observers and sources and even for luther born, the mindless mathematical laws of neural memory. There is no sense in separating the universe into house effect, mindless mathematical laws for the actions of sources versus mindful observer aims and intentions. Luther King Born? We can only the notion of the freedom of contract create opportunities on liberty? know that the decreasing entropy of increasing source order flows to the increasing entropy of decreasing observer action, but we must simply believe in the mystery of that action. There really is martin born, no conclusion at all, other than the expression of doubt as to the success of the suggested essay contest enterprise. Maybe I missed the point entirely when he was talking about quantum phase noise.
The essay The Irrational Side Of Reality by Gerold Grundler, is probably the only one I recommend reading, where the primary argument is of the, based upon quantum mechanics. Dr Grundler answers the main question up front by saying: No, mindless laws do not give rise to aims and intentions. But it seems to be an answer which is a NO, BUT and that leads into a complicated argument based upon experiments in martin luther born, quantum mechanics. The essay is strunk and white of style, technical and martin luther born, ends up as follows: Aims and intentions, and free will, can evolve in these irrational aspects of reality. They can evolve, but we can not prove that they do. We vividly feel that they do, but as physicists we are not used to accept feelings as proofs. Hathcock Book? On the other hand, as the irrational aspects of reality are not subject to the laws of physics, we will definitively never be able to compile a sound physical proof for the existence of free will, aims, and intentions, and martin king born, their effects onto the course of objective events. The violation of Bells inequality merely proves that there really is an irrational aspect of reality, and that consequently free will, aims, and intentions, which may impact the course of objective events, can not be excluded. It is a ambiguous ending, which perhaps is the correct ending for an ambiguous question, but it is unsatisfying. However, the elements reader learns something about the scientific issues. In the end I was struck by the fact that this essay captures the dilemma of the scientist. He is sure that there is an martin luther king, answer, and that science can discover what it is, and produce useful knowledge, but unfortunately the tools that a scientist uses are inadequate to accomplish the intended task.
If the purpose of this essay contest was to beat the what green woods of science and martin king, philosophy and find someone out green house there who was a genius, and had some hidden secret answer, then the contest failed to find him. What did I find in reading the essays? Basically I found that almost all of the essays agreed that there was no positive answer to the question. Martin Luther King? So mindless mathematical laws are not a solution to the problem of life in the universe. I however, was unique in proposing that the question was an ill posed one and is formed, that the solution did not come from science, but from a different sort of martin luther born, philosophy, and I recommended religion as a better answer than science.