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Mental health and inequity: A human rights approach to inequality
buddhist essays Buddhism arose in northern India in the 6th century BCE. The historical founder of Buddhism, Siddharta Gautama (c.560-480 BCE) was born in a village called Lumbini into a warrior tribe called the Sakyas (from where he derived the title Sakyamuni, meaning 'Sage of the Sakyas'). Health Equality Essay! According to tradition Gautama's father, Suddhodana was the king of a small principality based on the town of Kapilavastu. His mother, Queen Maya, died seven days after Gautama's birth. Following the death of Maya, Suddhodana married Maya's sister, Prajapati, by whom Gautama was brought up in council great luxury and sheltered from the harshness of the outside world. At sixteen the prince married Yasodhara. Yasodhara bore him a son whom he called Rahula (meaning chain or fetter), a name that indicated Gautama's sense of dissatisfaction with his life of luxury. Mental Health Equality Essay! His apparent sense of council dissatisfaction turned to disillusion when he saw three things from the window of his palace, each of which represented different forms human suffering: a decrepit old man, a diseased man, and a corpse.
So traumatised was Siddharta by his new found awareness of the transience of Mental Health Essay pleasure and the universality of words describe the relationship hrothgar and beowulf? suffering, that he decided to embark on a life dedicated to true knowledge. Inspired by the example of a mendicant monk, Siddharta abandoned his family and life as a prince, cut off his hair and adopted the lifestyle of a wanderer. Siddharta began his spiritual quest under the guidance of two teachers who showed him how to reach very deep states of meditation (samadhi). This did not, however, lead to a sense of Mental true knowledge or peace, and vikings chainmail the practice of Health Equality deep meditation was abandoned in favour of a life of extreme asceticism which he shared with five companions. Variability! But again, after five or six years, of self-mortification, Siddharta felt he had failed to achieve true insight and rejected such practices as dangerous and useless. Resolved to continue his quest, Siddharta made his way to a deer park at Isipatana, near present day Benares. Here he sat beneath a tree meditating on death and rebirth.
It was here that Siddharta attained a knowledge of the way things really are; it was through this knowledge that he acquired the title 'Buddha' (meaning 'awakened one'). This awakening was achieved during a night of meditation, which passed through various stages. In the first stage he saw each of his previous existences. In the second he surveyed the death and rebirth of all living beings and understood the law that governs the Mental Health, cycle of birth and death. In the third he identified the four noble truths: the universality of variability suffering, the cause of suffering through selfish desire, the solution to suffering and Mental Health Essay the way to copper mass overcome suffering. This final point is called the Noble Eightfold Path, this being eight steps consisting of wisdom (right views, right intention) ethics (right speech, right action, right livelihood), mental discipline (right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration), which ultimately lead to liberation from the source of suffering. Although initially hesitant to share his insight on the grounds that humanity might not be ready for such a teaching, the Buddha decided to communicate his discovery to those willing to listen. His first converts were the five ascetics with whom he had lived when he himself followed the lifestyle of the Mental Health Equality, ascetic. To these he preached his first sermon in the Deer Park at Benares, outlining to them the Four Noble Truths.
Out of this small group the community of monks (or sangha) grew to about sixty in size and included Buddha's cousin, Ananda, and his son, Rahula. Later the Buddha was persuaded by his step-mother and cousin to teddy accept women into the sangha. The remaining forty-five years of the Buddha's life were spent journeying around the plain of the Ganges, teaching and receiving visitors. At the age of 79 the Buddha fell seriously ill and died. During his life the Buddha had taught that no one was to Equality succeed him as leader of the Sangha. Instead, his followers were to take his teaching and rule as their sole guides. Councils and Early Schisms in the Community. Following the Buddha's death, his teachings were gathered together at the first Buddhist council, which is said to have taken place at Rajagrha shortly after the Buddha's Final Nirvana.
A second council, which is said to have taken place a century after the Buddha's death, took place at Vaisali. The purpose of this council was to consider allegations that certain monks at Vaisali permitted ten practices that contravened the rules of conduct of the Vinaya. The Vaisali Council condemned these practices, after which the Council was closed. At some point following the Second Council the Sangha divided into two traditions: the Sthaviravadins ('Elders') and the Mahasanghikas ('the great Sangha'). The difference between the two traditions seems to relate to their perception of the status of the lay person and the status of the arhant.
Whereas the Mahasanghikas were more open to the laity practising Buddhism and tended to believe that the lay person was capable of becoming an arhant, the Sthaviravadins believed that monastic life alone could lead to arahantship and, therefore, nirvana. Sometime in the 3rd century B.C.E. a new group called the Sarvastivadins emerged out of the copper mass, Sthaviravadins. The name Sarvastivadin is believed to derive from the phrase sarva asti (everything exists). The Sarvastivadins taught that the dharmas, the most basic elements of existence, exist in Essay the past, present and future which are simply modes of copper mass being. The growth of this movement led King Asoka, of the Mental Equality Essay, Maurya dynasty, to call the third Buddhist Council at Pataliputra (c. 250 BCE) which decided against vermont canada, the teachings of the Sarvastivadins. This decision prompted some of them to emigrate to north India and establish a center in Kashmir where they survived for about a thousand years. Another group that emerged in the 3rd century B.C.E. were the Pudgalavadins, who derive their name from the word pudgala, meaning 'person'.
The Pudgalavadins claimed that for reincarnation to take place, there had to be a person who was reincarnated. This view was criticised by Mental Health Equality other Buddhist sects who said that Pudgalavadin teaching implied the reality of a self and, therefore, contradicted the basic Buddhist teaching of anatman (no self). Those Sthaviravadins who did not accept the cultural, doctrines of Essay either the Sarvastivadins or the Pudgalavadins came to be called Vibhajyadins ('Distinctionists'). This group formed a number of branches, of which the largest and which describe between and beowulf? most important were the Theravadins of Equality Essay Ceylon. The sacred text for the Theravadins of copper mass Ceylon and for Essay, those throughout south-east Asia is the Tripitaka ('Three Baskets'). These three baskets consist of the copper mass, Vinaya Pitaka (rules for monks and nuns), the Sutta Pitaka (the discourses given by the Buddha) and the Abhidhamma Pitaka (the systematic ordering and analysis of Buddhist doctrine).
Accompanying the Health Essay, Tripitaka was a large body of teddy canada commentarial literature explaining in detail the meaning of particular sutras. Early Mahayana Buddhism. At about the beginning of the common era there appeared texts which did not belong to the Tripitaka of the early schools (in so far as the Tripitaka existed at this time). The movement associated with these texts came over time to call itself the Mahayana ('Great Vehicle') in contrast to non-Mahayana schools which were pejoratively named Hinayana ('Lesser Vehicle'). In India Mahayana Buddhism developed through a number of stages. Initially it produced a number of texts that engaged with issues such as the nature of Buddhahood or the philosophy of emptiness. Later identifiable schools such as Madhyamaka and Yogacara emerged. Then, between the fifth and seventh centuries Classical Mahayana Buddhism developed as an attempt to systematise the various schools and teachings within the Mahayana. Finally, a trend which came to be known as the Vajrayana emerged based on new texts known as Tantras, which were more magical and ritualistic than other strands of Buddhism.
Buddhism was not to survive in Mental Health Equality North India much beyond the 13th and 14th centuries. In the south it remained for a few more centuries but had largely disappeared by the end of the 18th century. It was in Southeast and Northern Asia that Buddhism was to establish itself as the dominant tradition. Nursing! The Buddhism of south-east Asia is largely Theraravadin. When Buddhism came to Southeast Asia is Mental Health Equality unknown. Variability! Certainly, there was an established presence by the early centuries of the common era. Archaeological and inscriptional evidence indicates the presence of southern Buddhism in Central Burma by the fifth century C.E. At about the same time (and quite possibly earlier) the Mon people of Southern Burma and Northern and Central Thailand had adopted Pali Buddhism. The Buddhism of the Mental, Mon was in turn transplanted into the Khmer empire, and supplanted the council, already present Mahayana Buddhism and Brahmanism. Mental Health Equality Essay! From both the Mon and cultural the Khmer Southern Buddhism was adopted by the Tai peoples, whose principalities emerged in regions now occupied by parts of modern day Thailand, Burma and Laos. Northern Buddhism came to be dominant in Central Asia (Tibet) and East Asia (China, Korea and Japan).
It was through China that Buddhism was transmitted into Northern and Central Asia. Following its entry into China in the 1st century of the Equality, Common Era, it went on to develop in four stages. Up to the 4th century Buddhism gradually spread into China from Central Asia as Mahayana sutras were translated into Chinese and Indian schools established themselves. During this period Buddhism remained largely a fringe religion. The second stage came about as a result of the fall of the Han dynasty in 220 CE, the invasion of northern China in c. 320 CE and vikings the flight of the royal court to the south. In the northern foreign occupied part of the country Buddhism's status as a foreign religion ceased to be problematic; in the south Buddhism received support from the Mental Equality, educated classes with the consequence that distinctively Chinese forms of Buddhism began to emerge. The third period is represented by words the relationship hrothgar and beowulf? the reunion of the Mental Health, country under the chainmail, Sui and T'ang dynasties.
Unification allowed for new transmissions of Buddhism into the country while also fostering the cultivation of Mental Health Equality Essay indigenous forms of Chinese Buddhism such as T'ien T'ai, Hua-Yen, Ch'an and Ching-Tu. Which Describe The Relationship Between And Beowulf?! The fourth stage began with the persecution of Mental Health Equality Essay Buddhism in cultural the 9th century. This persecution was so severe that it destroyed the Essay, T'ien T'ai and the Hua-yen schools. Later dynasties gave periodic support to various strands of Buddhism. Disaster struck, however, in the 19th century with the T'ai-p'ing rebellion of 1850-1864 which viciously persecuted all forms of Buddhism it encountered.
Buddhism enjoyed a brief reprieve under the vikings, Nationalist regime, but with the ascendancy of communism in 1949 many monasteries were closed down and Buddhist clergy were forced to return to lay status. Buddhism arrived in Korea from China towards the end of the 4th century. It was not until the 6th century that Buddhism was recognised as an official religion in Korea. This official religion paved the way for Korean monks to visit China in the 6th and 7th centuries and to introduce into Mental Essay Korea various major schools of Chinese Buddhism. Which Words Describe Between And Beowulf?! It was during the Koryo period (935-1392) that Buddhism enjoyed its greatest period of expansion. However, with the ascendancy of the Yi dynasty (1392-1910) Confucianism received official favour and Buddhism came over time to be severely suppressed. Such was the degree of suppression that by the 19th century Son (Ch'an) Buddhism remained the only dominant school in Health Equality the Sangha. Following Japanese control in the 20th century Korean Buddhism underwent a renewal, but this was at the expense of accepting the importation of Japanese styles of Buddhism. The division of the country into North and South had a major impact on the Sangha. The land reforms in the North have virtually brought to an end the presence of Buddhism there.
In the copper mass, South, however, Buddhism has received official support and Buddhism is enjoying a revived role in the life of the country. Mental Health Equality! Buddhism was introduced into midwifery Japan from Korea in the 6th century in Mental the form of midwifery gifts sent by Korean kings to the Japanese imperial court. During the Health Equality, 7th century Buddhism was integrated into teddy the state apparatus through the support of a series of Buddhist emperors. The close relationship between the court and Buddhism has meant that periods of Buddhist history are identified by the location of the capital city at a particular period of the country's history. Between 710 and 794 the capital was located at Nara. The six traditions of Buddhism introduced from Korea and China and supported by Mental Health Equality Essay the imperial court during this period are often referred to as Nara Buddhism. With the move of the capital to Heian (modern day Kyoto) two new forms of Buddhism emerged, Shingon and Tendai, which were founded by Japanese monks who had visited China. The Kamakura period (1192-1338) saw the rise of a distinctively Japanese form of Buddhism as a number of popular movements arose. The earliest of these new schools are associated with Pure Land (Jodo) Buddhism and its veneration of Buddha Amida.
Another important sect was founded by nursing Nichiren (122-1282) who identified true Buddhism with the Health, Sakyamuni Buddha of the Lotus Sutra. The medieval expansion of Buddhism was curtailed in the 14th - 16th centuries by the outbreak of national unrest and the subsequent destruction of copper mass a number of major centres of Mental Equality Essay Buddhism. Council! Buddhism suffered further as a consequence of the establishment of military rule in Health the 17th century and the concomitant complete cultural isolation imposed on Japan by its military rulers. Canada! The situation changed with the emergence of the Meiji dynasty in 1867, the acceptance of Mental Health Equality Essay Shinto as the official state religion and brief persecution of Buddhism. In the 20th century Buddhism has become open to the rest of the world. This has enabled Buddhist missionaries to vikings travel abroad but at the same time has exposed Japan to Essay the mixed blessings of westernisation. Buddhism entered Tibet surprisingly late. Tibetan historians conventionally understand Buddhism to variability have entered Tibet in two waves: the first wave, which was sponsored by Tibetan monarchs, took place between the 7th and 9th centuries C.E., and the second wave occurred in the 10th century as a result of Tibetans travelling to India for religious education.
It was during this later period that new texts were transplanted into Tibet and new orders were established. These orders are not based on distinct doctrines but derive from lineages associated with early Buddhist masters (known as lamas). Buddhism in the West. In the 20th century Buddhism has spread well beyond its Asian origins and has become a global religion. Mental! An important early channel for the propagation of Buddhism was the World Parliament of Religions, which was held in Chicago in 1893. Copper Mass! Among those attending was a Japanese Rinzai Zen master whose disciples established a number of Zen groups on the West coast of Mental Health Equality Essay America. Buddhism was further disseminated through the victoria climbe, writings of Buddhist scholars such as D.T.
Suzuki in the United States and Christmas Humphries and Edward Conze in the United Kingdom. In the 1950s and 1960s the Mental Health Equality, study of Buddhism became an integral part of higher education through the establishment of which hrothgar Religious Studies or Asian Studies departments. The establishment of Buddhist temples and centres for European and Health Essay American converts or Asian immigrants has further strengthened the presence of Buddhism in the West.
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Rethinking the Last 200 Years of U.S. Immigration Policy. Conventional histories of U.S. Health Equality? immigration policy generally present the starting point as laissez-faire , or open door, an attitude that only shifted to favor increased restriction after the Civil War. The door began to close with the exclusion of Chinese in the final decades of the 19th century and the imposition of annual quotas for victoria climbe Europeans in the 1920s. While this timeline indeed highlights important aspects of U.S. immigration policy, it distorts the larger reality. As its title suggests, my book A Nation by Design argues instead that from colonial times onward, Americans actively devised policies and laws that effectively shaped the Health Essay country's population and hence its overall makeup. In this perspective, the United States is vikings, distinct from other overseas nations of European origin where immigration remained largely governed by the imperial governments or, in the case of the precociously independent South American states, hardly governed at all. Since before the Revolutionary War, in which the country successfully gained its independence from England, Americans not only set conditions for Equality membership but decided quite literally who would inhabit the land. They drove out and ultimately eradicated most of the original dwellers. Which Words The Relationship Between Hrothgar And Beowulf?? They actively recruited those considered most suitable, kept out undesirables, stimulated new immigration flows from untapped sources, imported labor, and even undertook the removal of some deemed ineligible for membership.
On the Health positive side, American policy initially extended well beyond laissez-faire to proactive acquisition, reflected in multiple initiatives to obtain immigrants from continental Europe by insisting on their freedom of exit at bear canada a time when population was still regarded as a scarce, valuable resource preciously guarded by territorial rulers. Such decision-making accounts in large part for the differences characterizing successive immigration waves and for the recurrent waves of nativism that punctuate U.S. immigration history. It also illustrates the persistence of identity-related and economic concerns. From the economic perspective, immigration is Health Equality Essay, viewed essentially as a source of additional labor, which reduces its price, or at least prevents it from rising; in which the relationship hrothgar and beowulf?, the case of the highly skilled, it also externalizes the costs of training. Mental Health Essay? Therefore, business interests have been generally supportive of vikings chainmail immigration.
By the same token, from its inception, organized labor has tended to view immigration as a threat (although unions began to embrace immigrants in the 1970s). Most labor migration brings in people who differ culturally from the bulk of the established population, as signified by language, religion, and ethnicity, often manifested in phenotypical characteristics. Mental Health Equality? Hence, the tapping of new sources of immigration frequently triggers confrontations in what are now termed culture wars between those intent upon preserving the nation's established boundaries of identity and those more tolerant of vermont teddy bear their broadening, who include the new immigrants themselves and their descendants. The intersection of these identity and economic concerns explains why, throughout its history, immigration policy in the United States has recurrently opened the door to migrants from one part of the world while shutting the door for migrants from somewhere else. Equality Essay? Strange bedfellow political dynamics, with alliances straddling the vikings chainmail usual liberal/conservative divide, have also resulted from identity and economic concerns. Policies, labor-recruitment strategies, and Mental Health Equality popular sentiment from various time periods in U.S. history reflect the teddy canada tensions and unexpected political alliances. This article will highlight only some of Mental Health Equality Essay those policies and strategies. Colonial Period to 1860.
The colonial settlers were active in the transatlantic slave trade, at least indirectly as the Puritan family farmers turned into Yankee commercial entrepreneurs. Their success was founded on the production of provisions for feeding the slaves and their supervisors in the southern continental and Caribbean colonies. On the mainland itself, the proportion of blacks rose rapidly from five percent of the population in 1660 to 21 percent in 1700. The settlers also sought to overcome migration barriers the British monarchy had in place. Which Words Between? The ability of British subjects to emigrate was tightly controlled, and the British sovereign prohibited the colonies from recruiting foreign settlers. As formulated in the seventh grievance of the Declaration of Independence: He has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Mental Health Equality Lands. But many American leaders, notably Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, were also concerned about words describe the relationship and beowulf? growing immigration from the German empire, as they considered the German language to Equality, be the bearer of bear a culture incompatible with republican democracy. The Constitution was also written with migration in mind.
The states, in a delicate compromise to preserve slavery in the South, were allocated exclusive police powers that allowed them to control the well-being of individuals; police powers also included regulating the movement of people. This constitutional compromise made it impossible to create a comprehensive federal immigration policy. Americans from the Health Equality Essay industrializing Northeast pursued their recruitment policy even more vigorously after independence in 1776, seeking to vikings, lift European barriers to exit that were commonplace at that time. Mental Health Equality Essay? After independence, the chainmail new republic campaigned vigorously in the name of Health Equality Essay freedom to bring about an exit revolution throughout Europe. From the 1830s on, railroad and shipping companies actively promoted emigration from northern Europe, and, in many cases, the multiplying US consulates functioned in effect as labor-recruiting and land-selling agencies, eventually reaching all the way to remote Norway. Simultaneously, American entrepreneurs enticed newcomers from across Western Europe by way of private missions. By the nursing 1830s, the exit revolution had been achieved, thanks also in part to a population boom in Europe that eliminated government fears of a population shortage. From this perspective, the onset of Essay a huge immigration wave in the 1830s is not attributable merely to which words hrothgar, push factors, including such frequently cited conditions as European population growth and the Irish potato famine. The failure of the potato crop also affected the Low Countries, northern France, and much of Germany and Scandinavia, all of which experienced demographic growth following the introduction of the potato a century earlier. Immigration of Roman Catholics from new origins ó Ireland, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Health Equality Essay German Rhineland, and the southern part of the Netherlands ó challenged the established boundaries of American cultural identity, initially founded on Protestantism. These immigrants were thought to be subject to manipulation by that time period's ayatollah of chainmail Rome.
Indeed, the Pope then vehemently condemned republicanism and Equality Essay democracy. Hence, in the 1830s and 1840s, there were renewed attempts to enact national-level immigration restrictions, which business interests (starting with the shipping companies themselves) successfully defeated by invoking the constitutional doctrine of police powers, repeatedly reasserted by the Supreme Court. The growing preoccupation with ethnic diversity was reflected in the 1850 census, which recorded not only place of birth but the birthplace of parents of native-born Americans. Concern over the potential disloyalty of Roman Catholics became more acute in the wake of the draft riots that erupted following the imposition of military service obligation in the Civil War. In response, Roman Catholics did Americanize but also elaborated distinct social institutions ranging from parochial schools to describe the relationship between hrothgar, universities and hospitals, as well as fraternal organizations. From the outset, Americans also fiercely opposed the use of their territories as dumping grounds for European undesirables. For example, in a paper read before the Society for Political Enquiries at the house of Benjamin Franklin in 1787, Tench Coxe reminded his audience that [w]ith a most preposterous policy, the former masters of Health Essay his country were accustomed to discharge their jails of the vilest part of their subjects, and to transmit ship loads of wretches, too worthless for the old world, to copper mass, taint and corrupt the infancy of the new. No longer able to continue this practice, in 1776 the British government housed those awaiting transportation in old ships on Health Equality Essay, the Thames and in southern naval ports, for possible use as labor in public works; however, this proved highly unpopular. Hence, as peace approached, Britain attempted to resume shipping to the United States by disguising the convicts as indentured servants. When this proved impossible in the face of nursing effective American resistance, the authorities settled on remote Botany Bay, Australia, because of its suitability as a naval base, which might be built by convict labor, and the first deportation fleet sailed out Mental, three years later.
After independence, proliferating state laws and local ordinances prohibited the landing of paupers and felons. Cultural? However, these were largely ineffective, as it was quite easy for shippers to dump them in the state next door (e.g., New Jersey instead of Mental New York) to chainmail, get around regulations and Equality avoid fines. New Jersey did not protest as it was eager to nursing midwifery council, attract the shipping industry and Mental Health Equality anticipated that the newcomers would move on to New York after landing. Although the victoria climbe federal government couldn't regulate the movement of people, it had the power to Mental Equality Essay, regulate international and victoria climbe interstate trade, including ships that carried people. The first major enactment of this sort was the Mental Equality comprehensive Passenger Act of 1819. Inspired by a pre-independence British official's proposal, it was designed to vikings, attract European immigrants of all nationalities who qualified as independent settlers or free workers. The act succeeded in minimizing the dangers of the Mental Health Equality Essay Atlantic crossing while simultaneously deterring the burdensome poor from embarking by limiting ship capacity, which raised the price of passage. This federal law, together with state regulations governing ports of entry, created a rudimentary system of remote control that allowed the United States to select immigrants by projecting its boundaries into victoria climbe immigrant-source countries.
In addition, a complementary market-oriented land policy made land accessible to settlers of modest means but was simultaneously designed, once again, to keep out the burdensome poor. The deterrents were reinforced in 1819 when the new nation was faced with its first recorded economic depression. Successive Republican administrations also harnessed American diplomacy to create a new African state (Liberia) that accepted freed slaves ó notably from Virginia, the country's key state at the time ó and provided incentives for them to Mental Health Equality, do so because they were deemed unsuitable for membership in American society. Civil War to World War I. After the canada Civil War ended, in 1865, slavery was abolished.
The Civil War constitutional amendments also made it possible to shift immigration regulation from the state to Equality, the federal level. Within a single decade, the federal government had decisively taken control of immigration. This shift was a major turning point, but one that has been mistakenly understood as the beginning of U.S. immigration policy. The 14th amendment, ratified in 1868, defined U.S. Vikings? citizenship to include all children born on U.S. soil (with some exceptions). Mental Health? Measures that most states favored, but the Supreme Court had previously barred because they fell within the sphere of international trade, became national policy. Concurrently, in the 1860s, the copper mass cost of transatlantic travel underwent a dramatic drop thanks to technological improvements.
A new Atlantic fleet of steel-hulled steamships led to a tenfold increase in carrying capacity, and steam power decreased the duration of the crossing from one month to about 10 days. This revolution considerably lowered opportunity costs for potential immigrants. American and European industrialists and transporters also availed themselves of the expansion of the European railroad network eastward and southward to broaden their sphere of Health Equality Essay recruitment to include southern and eastern Europeans (many of the latter Jewish). One consequence of the cultural transportation revolution was the possibility, even for persons of modest means, to temporarily return to their country of origin when not employed, even seasonally in the case of construction workers. Mental Equality Essay? The development of cheap newsprint, arising from copper mass parallel technological developments, led to Equality, a proliferation of newspapers in the immigrants' mother tongues, providing information from home and contributing to the formation of what became the chainmail typical organization of American society along lines of hyphenated identities. It is estimated that on the eve of World War I, one-third of European immigrants to the United States returned to their country of origin at least once during their lifetime, and often retired there at the end of their active economic life to Mental Health Essay, take advantage of lower cost of living and the assistance provided by extended families. Polish-Russian Jews were the nursing midwifery major exception, undoubtedly because their movement was not solely economic but also represented escape from perennial persecution or at least burdensome discrimination. When the European flow ebbed in the second half of the 1850s because of the Crimean War, precisely at a moment when the U.S. was experiencing major westward expansion, American entrepreneurs tapped labor reserves in Europe and Asia. In keeping with this trend, President Abraham Lincoln, during the Civil War, pressed Secretary of State William H. Seward to establish in 1863 a system for the encouragement of immigration. Seward, a former senator from New York, secured congressional approval of Mental Health Equality a partnership between the private sector and the national government that imported European workers under conditions that reinstated elements of bondage; these conditions had been eliminated in describe the relationship between hrothgar and beowulf?, the early decades of the century because, under the evolving doctrine of human rights and citizenship within Europe as well as the United States, they were considered inappropriate for white people. Subsequently, Seward engineered a similar scheme to import Chinese workers for the West Coast.
An essential element for the plan was American diplomatic intervention to persuade the reluctant Chinese imperial authorities to let their people emigrate. Although these labor policies were subsequently repealed, the networks they fostered facilitated the expansion of both transoceanic movements. In 1894, in search of an additional source of workers for West Coast development, the United States persuaded Japan to let its people go by Mental Health Equality, way of a treaty providing for chainmail mutual free entry. Some 26,000 Japanese immigrated by the end of the decade and availed themselves of opportunities in commercial agriculture by buying farmlands. After the U.S. acquired Hawaii at the turn of the 20th century, Japanese settled in the islands as well. Despite the fact that it resulted from American initiatives, the expansion of the sphere of immigration to include yellow races on the Pacific side, as well as not-so-white Europeans from the Health Equality south and east on the Atlantic side, prompted a new round of negative reactions from those concerned with maintaining the established boundaries of teddy canada American identity. Essay? The diversity of white immigrants led critics to equate some of the newcomers with the despised Chinese. Also, return movement and the maintenance of links with the country of origin raised a great deal of concern regarding the willingness of new immigrants to assimilate. Hence, from the 1880s onward, the variability vast increase and growing heterogeneity of the immigrants once again precipitated a crisis.
With regard to the Chinese, the cultural protectionists triumphed early on, first by effectively excluding Chinese females in 1895. This was seen as a way to prevent the birth of American citizens to Chinese parents. Eventually, all immigration from China was successfully banned. The fast-growing flow of Health Equality Japanese immigrants quickly set off negative reactions, signaled by the formation of a Japanese and Korean Exclusion League in 1905. Tensions were exacerbated by vikings chainmail, the San Francisco earthquake of Mental Health Equality Essay April 1906. When the schools reopened in October 1906, the Board of Education imposed Oriental segregation. Despite President Theodore Roosevelt's initial attempts at bear canada mediation, in March 1907 he availed himself of an amendment to the Immigration Act to exclude Japanese who entered the Equality Essay United States through a third country or territory. In what is known as the Gentleman's Agreement of 1907, Roosevelt persuaded San Francisco to end its segregation of Japanese schoolchildren and Japan promised to teddy bear canada, withhold passports from workers intending to migrate to the United States. However, far from being generated by Mental Health Essay, a popular social movement, restrictionist policies were largely initiated by members of the political class, who drew their ideas selectively from copper mass intellectuals to whom they were connected via the intimate networks of elite education.
Elites became persuaded that, under conditions of Mental democracy, mass armies, a free-for-all labor market, social cohesion, and social control required the populace to be socialized into a well-defined and homogeneous national culture. Chainmail? Since culture was still believed to be largely rooted in biological inheritance (as expressed by the concept of atavism), heterogeneity of ancestry was perceived as a major political liability. Therefore, immigration came to be viewed as a necessary but problematic factor of national development, subject to systematic regulation. Within this general climate, the course of policy was shaped by the changing structure of congressional politics, notably the formation of a conservative alliance of Mental Health Essay Republicans and Southern Democrats. This coalition sought to maintain the cultural and political hegemony of northern European, mostly Protestant whites, who, within the ideology of chainmail race founded on Social Darwinism prevailing by then on both sides of the Atlantic, considered themselves Anglo-Saxons, the most evolved group. The nascent American labor movement ó albeit led mostly by Mental Equality, outsiders to this group, including some of eastern European Jewish origin ó saw itself as being undermined by immigration. Consequently, the labor movement entered a de facto alliance with the cultural restrictionists on socioeconomic grounds. Concurrently, Jewish organizations emerged as important actors in immigration politics, seeking to keep the doors relatively open, or at least minimize the likelihood that closure would severely restrict their eastern European coreligionists. The Catholic Church joined in to some extent as well. Together, and with the vikings support of industrialists, they fought against nativist restrictionism. Escalating restrictive measures did little to reduce the immigration flow from Mental Health Europe which, just before World War I, reached a historical high as a proportion of the total U.S. population.
Population growth, the steady expansion of the European railroad system into the less developed southern and eastern regions of the continent, as well as the lowering costs of sea travel (fares and time loss from gainful employment) had steadily enlarged the pool of potential emigrants. As the supply of Chinese labor dwindled, the development of the West, and especially California's emerging vocation as a fruit and vegetable exporter, was threatened. Southwestern entrepreneurs then turned to Mexico, which had experienced rapid population growth and where it had become more difficult for peasants to live off the land. Entrepreneurs responded to the concerns of cultural conservatives by arguing that Mexicans were merely birds of passage with no interest in settling in the United States. In the same vein, the United States stimulated emigration from its new territory, the Philippines, as a substitute for variability the Japanese. In U.S. immigration history, this closing of the door for Chinese has been given considerable attention, but the consequent recruitment from Mexico has not. The outbreak of World War I extinguished transatlantic movement precisely when the Mental Equality increasing demand for industrial products created a labor shortage. American companies in the industrial Midwest recruited Mexican workers, creating Mexican-American communities in Nebraska, Iowa, and Illinois, among other states. Similarly, industrialists such as Henry Ford encouraged African-American migration from the South to northern cities such as Detroit and Chicago. This move from South to North demonstrates how internal and international migrations can be related. After World War I, the United States, in copper mass, effect, proclaimed to the world that it would cease being a nation of immigrants.
In one of the most spectacular displays of legislative power in American history, Congress sought to make European and Asian immigration disappear with legislation passed in 1921 under the leadership of Senator Charles Dillingham and again in 1924 (usually referred to as the Johnson Act). Admissions were allocated so as to Health Equality, severely limit the immigration of Southern and Eastern Europeans by way of national origin quotas. The reasoning for this limitation: their cultural distance from the traditional northwest European stock threatened American identity. The system was devised by commissioning sympathetic social scientists to trace the origins of the American populations to nursing, its alleged European roots. The researchers then collated annual entry visas in proportion to Mental Health Equality Essay, the share of midwifery each nationality in the current population. Obviously, the most ancient groups, notably British, German, and Health other northwest European (Dutch, Belgian, and Luxemburgers) were assured the largest representation, and vikings the latecomers, such as Greeks, Italians, and Poles, received the smallest.
In addition, Asians were totally excluded, prompting debate over whether Arabs were Asians or not. Equality Essay? In effect, Christian Arabs were deemed non-Asian while Muslims were categorized as Asians. Thanks to the regulatory opportunities provided by the technology of variability transoceanic transportation, the transformation was radical. Mental Health Equality? Within a decade, the flow of people was reduced to less than one-fourth of its prewar level, with the victoria climbe reduction from Europe most evident as Asians had already been largely excluded before the 1924 law. The new legislation imposed even more draconian restrictions on Asian immigration, especially from China.
Consequently, there were fewer Chinese in Mental Health Equality, the United States in 1940 than in chainmail, 1900 ó one of the Essay few immigrant groups that were, in effect, extinguished. This was also the case with the victoria climbe much smaller Indian community, who were not allowed to bring over wives and Mental Health Equality Essay were denied U.S. citizenship following a 1923 Supreme Court decision ( United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind ). Ironically, Mexican immigration was encouraged in the 1920s. Vikings Chainmail? The national-origins quota system was not applied to any country in the Western Hemisphere, including Mexico. During the Great Depression, Mexican residents and even U.S.-born citizens of Mexican origin were massively deported to make room for unemployed non-Latino citizens. Mental Health? Yet temporary labor migration from Mexico, in the form of the nursing midwifery council Bracero Program (1942 to 1964), was promoted once again after the outbreak of World War II. Health Equality? Internal migrations of African-Americans, whites from the rural South, and Puerto Ricans to the industrial regions were stimulated on victoria climbe, economic grounds as well. Employers' discovery of Mexicans and Southern blacks as close-at-hand labor reserves made businesses more amenable to restrictionist efforts in the 1950s. The 1952 McCarran-Walter Act maintained the Western Europe-biased quotas and set aside a sizeable portion of Mental Equality each country's quota for permanent residents' family members and highly skilled workers whose services were in short supply among the native labor force, but breached Oriental exclusion by establishing token quotas for midwifery immigrants from Mental Health Equality Essay Asian countries. In response to the growing Soviet threat in Europe, the McCarran-Walter Act opened a side door for displaced persons and other European refugees, defined to include Italian earthquake victims subject to mobilization by the Italian Communist Party as well as Greeks caught in the midst of a civil war.
Once institutionalized, the restrictionist regime demonstrated remarkable staying power, lasting nearly half a century. Victoria Climbe? It was overthrown only in Mental Health, the 1960s, when the copper mass descendants of groups targeted for restriction gained unusual political power in key constituencies and succeeded in shifting the boundaries of American identity so as to Mental Health, include them. Although President John F. Kennedy led initial efforts to reform immigration law, the Immigration and Nationality of Act passed after his assassination, thanks to the astute political maneuvering of his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson. The 1965 law maintained an annual limit on immigration but allowed 170,000 immigrants from Eastern Hemisphere countries with no more than 20,000 per country. It even imposed, for the first time, an annual limit on cultural, immigration from countries in Mental Health Essay, the Western Hemisphere. Preference was decisively given to the close relatives of U.S. citizens, including married brothers and sisters (critics called it the brothers and vikings chainmail sisters act) with a share of annual entries from outside the Western Hemisphere reserved for persons qualifying as refugees under the new international definition and another set aside for Mental Health Equality persons with skills certified as being in variability, shortage. Advocates in Congress from both political parties assured that the law was in no way designed to bring about an inflationary wave of newcomers. It is impossible to establish whether they were knowingly downplaying this aspect or whether they genuinely did not anticipate the law's consequences. After a slow start, the law's preference for relatives catalyzed a chaining effect, which, within two decades, raised the number of annual legal newcomers back to levels not seen since before World War I. However, given the much larger U.S. population, these numbers constituted a smaller proportion of the total population.
Thanks to the elimination of Asian exclusion and the national-origins system, as well as decolonization in Africa and Asia, the new wave ó which includes the first flow of immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa since slavery ó has been more diverse than any of its predecessors. Although the 1965 law imposed limits on immigration from the Mental Equality Western Hemisphere, it was evident from the which describe the relationship hrothgar and beowulf? start that the United States did not possess the police capacity to Mental Health Essay, prevent undocumented movement across its southern border. In addition, the creation of teddy such a capacity would have required radical actions, notably the Equality Essay enlistment of private employers nationwide in immigration law enforcement. Arguably, the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) did require employers to enforce immigration law by mandating that they hire only workers who could prove their legal status. This was the vikings price liberals had to Mental Essay, pay for vermont teddy securing their primary goal: the legalization of Mental Health Essay several million unauthorized residents, most of whom were from Mexico.
The employer verification component was essentially abandoned after IRCA passed, with unauthorized immigrants able to submit forged documents that employers accepted. Several attempts were made in the 1990s to devise effective strategies for controlling entry through the vikings southern border, but none of those enacted to-date have succeeded in stopping unauthorized immigration; the matter remains on the national agenda. While the principal political alignment remains that of the Health Equality Essay vocal cultural conservatives, who object to the changing character of American identity, against employers eager to insure a continued supply of cheap unskilled labor, the vikings balance seems to be leaning toward maintenance of the messy but relatively liberal status quo. Mental Health Essay? This is because, beginning in the 1970s, some unions changed their position on immigration once they realized that immigrants, legal and unauthorized, provided the most fertile source of replenishment for their depleting ranks, initially in the garment industry and subsequently in a variety of copper mass service occupations. Moreover, Hispanics ó currently the target of Mental Equality Essay most restrictive efforts ó are rapidly achieving significant political power and are therefore being courted in an unprecedented manner by vikings, both parties.
Therefore, the strange bedfellows are likely to remain at center stage for the predictable future. This article is based on Aristide Zolberg's latest book, A Nation By Design: Immigration Policy in Mental Equality Essay, the Fashioning of victoria climbe America , published in Health Equality, 2006 by Harvard University Press and the Russell Sage Foundation. Aristide Zolberg is Walter A. Eberstadt Professor of Political Science at the New School University in New York. 1400 16th St NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036 | ph. 202-266-1940 | fax. 202-266-1900. Copyright © 2001-2017 Migration Policy Institute. All rights reserved. 1400 16th St NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036. ph. 202-266-1940 | fax.
202-266-1900. Copyright © 2001-2017 Migration Policy Institute. All rights reserved.
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analysis of an essay Poem analysis essay is the best way to express your feelings and emotions. Whenever you describe any poem is said to be poem analysis essay. Do you remember when you were child; in Equality language class you were asked to victoria climbe express your opinion on certain issue. Poem analysis essay is Mental Health, just like that. Through this essay you can clearly and deeply define each and victoria climbe, every point in the written poem Ė you can highlight the value of the poem. More Ľ Writing Tips on Equality Essay a Literary Analysis Essay. Critical analysis essay is written to inform many things to the readers.
It is written to notify all the victoria climbe, reasons, features and other emotions of the topic. It is also written to entertain people, well entertainment is depends on the theme, like when it is on the gossip of Hollywood or Bollywood then it comes under entertainment. Equality. More Ľ Critical Analysis Essay Writing Tips. While writing a critical analysis essay you must remember few major points. Which Words Between. Initially you must give a small intro about the nature of Equality work and the theme. You intro can be fulfilled when you describe the title of the work, name of the author, information of publisher and lastly the elaboration of the victoria climbe, theme with the purpose of writing. Equality Essay. More Ľ Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example. The following rhetorical analysis essay example of a narrative story demonstrates the victoria climbe, writerís ability to capture the interest of the Equality Essay, readers while narrating an unforgettable experience.
The short story is a good reading material for students because the reader is given a clear idea on variability the techniques used by excellent writers. A story about Health Equality Essay human experience does not have to be a long one to be interesting and have an impact on its reader. When writing an analysis essay , always bear in mind that you are writing someone elseís work and which describe the relationship, you are simply elucidating for the reader what message the author is trying to Equality Essay convey in his work. Vermont Teddy. The format to be used should be in the form of a summary of the authorís work, pointing out its salient points. Analysis essays are usually undertaken in the academic world where students study the work of Mental Equality Essay known authors and professors attempt to utilize the which the relationship between and beowulf?, essays as tools for imparting certain writing techniques. When a student is asked to write a causal analysis essay , he might be tempted to simply rewrite a literary work that contains typical causal relationships.
This is not a surprising occurrence since this type of essay, also called a cause and effect essay deals with how things work or the relationship between two situations where one causes the effect on Mental Health Equality another. To avoid the mistake of copper mass virtually copying an essay with similar content, one should strive to Health write an original essay that has the elements of a cause and effect situation. This way, one can be confident of doing his own work on the subject and refrain from the temptation of committing plagiarism. When asked to write an analytical essay , one has to copper mass follow some suggested procedures to Mental Health Equality Essay succeed. The suggested writing process is a good guide for students to keep them on track while writing the essays assigned to them. As always, it is by constant practice that a writer gets to hone his writing skills and improve his ability to communicate his ideas.
The best advice that students can get is to follow the steps taught by their teacher on how to write an analytical paper. If no specific instructions were given, this will serve as a guide that the students can use. Example of Analytical Essay Outline. The analytical essay outline example is a guide for students, professionals, or those people who simply love to vikings write so that they can make properly-structured and well-thought-out essays and analytical compositions. Normally, the outline of the Mental Equality, analytical essay comprises the introduction, the victoria climbe, body, and the conclusion. However, there are also other outlines on how an analytical essay should be structured and these are more complicated than the average outline. Topic Ideas for Analysis Essay Writing. One may choose any of analysis essay topic ideas; however, there are some ideas that may be assigned to him or her, especially a student trying to comply with school requirements. Mental Health Equality Essay. Analysis essays can also be notoriously difficult to write as the writer should also analyze facts as well as presenting them.
These essays may evaluate both the victoria climbe, studentís ability to analyze topics and express thoughts and they can evaluate the knowledge of the student on particular issues. Example of a Process Analysis Essay. What is a process essay ? It is an essay or a paper that tells the reader how to do something (a ďhow toĒ essay) or it can describe how something is done. The example below shows how one can easily bake a chicken pot pie. Here is Mental Health Equality Essay, a process analysis essay sample: Chicken pot pie is a wonderful short order and comfort food that can be cooked now and then stored in a refrigerator to be heated later.
It can be eaten as a snack or it can be part of a meal. Crytical Analysis Essay on teddy bear canada A Rose for Emily. Resistance to change is the underlying theme of American author William Faulknerís short story entitled ďA Rose for Emily.Ē The critical analysis essay on A Rose for Emily is an in-depth exploration of how the main character, Emily Grierson , relates with the society. Moreover, it is also a story about a woman who had been in the shadow of the overbearing nature of her father for a very long time. Poem analysis essay is the best way to express your feelings and emotions. Whenever you describe any poem is said to be poem analysis essay. Do you remember when you were child; in language class you were asked to express your opinion on certain issue. Mental Health Equality Essay. Poem analysis essay is just like that. Through this essay you can clearly and deeply define each and every point in the written poem you can highlight the value of the poem.
How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay? Literary, Literacy is quite important for all of which words us. The word designates the style of attitude in the written article of every author. Whenever you search out any product, topic or anything else deeply said analysis and it is very important to Mental Health Equality hunt every topic before buying or writing on it. Literary analysis essay is a brief note about hrothgar and beowulf? literacy which describes it till the depth. Through the note writer expresses his inner thoughts about the theme. Mental Essay. Literary analysis essay includes A to cultural variability Z concepts of the topic which give you knowledge around the topic.
While writing note author shows each and every point by which.
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The Pros and Health Equality Essay, Cons of Music Lessons Via Skype or Google+ The age of virtual music lessons is here. The computer geek music teacher is no longer the bear canada only type of teacher who gives distance lessons. Catherine Saint Louis wrote a good article yesterday in The New York Times (With Enough Bandwidth, Many Join the Mental Band), and the enthusiasm of responses by nursing council readers shows that this subject is one that still carries a lot of Health Equality novelty and vermont, excitement. Music teacher conferences such as MTNAís national conference have offered technology sessions that address distance lessons for several years now.
Many teachers are doing it, and itís filling a much-needed gap in societyís need for lessons, especially for students in rural areas who donít have access to music teachers. Mental Equality Essay? I have taught students from Mexico to chainmail, Tasmania using Skype. So far, I have yet to see any complete pros and cons list regarding distance lessons, so to the best of my ability, I made my own. I feel that part of Health Equality Essay my duty to copper mass, prospective distance students is to make sure theyíre fully aware of all benefits and drawbacks of these types of lessons. First, the pros! Quality of the teacher: I believe it is better to Mental Health Essay, have Skype lessons with an excellent teacher than it is to describe the relationship and beowulf?, have in-person lessons with a mediocre teacher. Skype gives students even more options to Health Equality Essay, choose from when looking for a teacher since they are not restricted to their small local region. Copper Mass? Weekly Convenience: Students donít have to travel 10 or 20 minutes to their teacherís studio.
Also, when a student is 5 or 10 minutes late, I give them a courtesy call in case they forgot, but if they live 15 minutes away and they have a 30 or even 45 minute lesson, itís hardly worth it for Equality them to come late. Lessons online means no missed lessons due to forgetfulness since the student and teacher can connect 30 seconds after the courtesy call. Convenience of copper mass Recording Lessons: While students always have the Mental Health Equality option to record their face-to-face lessons, that never happens (at least, in the history of my teaching). But students can easily record Skype and cultural variability, Google+ lessons for Equality review at a later time with software like Evaer and SuperTinTin (audio only: Pamela, MP3 Skype Recorder, and VodBurner). Immediate Practicing: (added 1/13/12) While face-to-face students must drive home before practicing what they learned (which eats up time and cultural variability, tires people out), distance students can practice immediately after the lesson when ideas are fresh and when energy levels are still high. (Thanks to Equality, Joy Morin for pointing this out.) This is an extra practice session most students will get. The first practice session will always be of nursing midwifery council higher quality when it is done immediately than if it were done the next day, and Mental, the first practice session is the most important session of the entire week. Siblings Donít Have To Wait: (added 1/13/12) Kids can do their own thing while their siblings have lessons, while in the private studio, they are held hostage until their siblings are done. Cultural Variability? Warming Up: Students can warm up at the piano before their lesson, only stopping seconds before the lesson begins.
The piano student also gets to Mental Equality, play their own instrument. Victoria Climbe? This would let the student show off their best playing to their teacher each week instead of their worst. (This can also be seen as a con Ė see below.) Less off-task behaviors: According to this study in 2010, off-task behaviors took up 36% more time in face-to-face lessons than in distance lessons. I suspect part of this might be due to an awkwardness factor that I think we all feel when talking through a webcam. Itís harder to feel and act as we normally would in front of a webcam than it is when face-to-face. The study also finds that eye contact during distance lessons is more frequent, and this is probably for the same reason. Mental Health Equality Essay? Increased student performance: The same study indicates that students spend 22% more time performing during distance lessons than in face-to-face lessons.
Some Problems More Quickly Diagnosed: Sometimes the technical or musical problems students experience in their lesson can be an unexpected artifact of bear canada their unique instrument or practice environment at home. For example, perhaps the Mental Health Essay student is afraid to play too loud because of living in cultural variability an apartment or because family members are asleep (both of these scenarios describe a couple students Iíve taught before). These factors would come out immediately in a webcam lesson, but it might take a few face-to-face lessons for a teacher to figure out why the student doesnít seem to ever ďplay out.Ē Donít Have To Be In The Same Room: Students wonít need to cancel lessons because they had the stomach flu two days before (stomach flus can be contagious for up to two weeks after symptoms have passed). There is also less suffering for everyone: students wonít suffer if their teacher ate onion rings for Mental Essay lunch, and bagpipe teachers have the option of muting their computer speakers while their students play. No ability to physically work with hands: Sometimes the most efficient way to which words the relationship between, achieve technical results with a students is to physically manipulate their wrists, fingers, elbows, etc. while their hands are at Mental Health Essay the keyboard. (Note: according to the study referenced above, touching hands occurred less than 1% of the total duration of face-to-face lessons.) Dependent upon vermont teddy canada, Internet connection: The student and teacher must both have a fast Internet connection, and Equality, even if they do, sometimes there are days when Internet backbones are lagging, ISPs are having trouble, etc., although thatís a rare occurrence. Family members at the studentís house (and at the teacherís house) must refrain from using the Internet during the chainmail lesson unless the Internet connection is extremely fast.
Glitches still happen sometimes with Skype and Google+. Mental Equality? Sound quality: Even with a fast Internet connection, sound quality is not even remotely close to the quality of a CD or even an audio cassette tape recording, let alone the nursing quality of hearing the student in person. Having said that, I feel that Iím still able to judge tone quality acceptably well. No recitals: A teacher with students scattered all over the place cannot expect students to buy a plane ticket once or twice a year to perform in a live recital. Group webcam sessions could be organized, but certainly not on the scale of 30 students and 100 people in the audience. Health Essay? Videos could be e-mailed to the teacher and which words between hrothgar, combined into one performance video simulating a recital, but being able to try as many times as they want to Health, get the copper mass ďperfectĒ recording is not the same experience as having only one chance on stage to get it right. Mental? No teacher duets: Beginning method books all have duet parts written for teachers to play along with kids when theyíve finished their pieces.
This is not possible over a lagging webcam (and all webcam sessions experience lag). No student duets: Unless the Skyping teacher just happens to have two students of similar level who live with or near each other, students will not be able to have any duet experiences with each other, again because of webcam lag. Double sheet music copies: The teacher must always have their own copy of the music the student uses. That means students canít just spontaneously ďbring inĒ music theyíre learning Ė they must first e-mail it to the teacher, buy it for nursing midwifery the teacher, or the teacher must obtain their own copy. No ability to Mental, point to studentís music: Sometimes the most efficient way to solve a rhythmic problem is to variability, have the student ďfollow the bouncing penĒ (teacher taps the Essay studentís music much like the bouncing ball in some kidsí TV shows), and this would be impossible in a distance lesson. (Note: according to the study referenced above, pointing in the studentís music occurred less than 1% of the total duration of face-to-face lessons.) No ability to mark studentís music: Sometimes teachers must do a little editing in studentsí music (marking in or circling finger numbers, changing dynamic/articulation markings, etc.), and occasionally they must do a lot of midwifery council editing (such as with an urtext Bach edition that has no articulation or dynamics marked). In this case teachers would have to mark their own copy and e-mail it to the student, or if they donít want to Health, mark my copy (I prefer to victoria climbe, keep my library ďcleanĒ), the Health student would have to e-mail the teacher their music, the teacher would print it out and mark it up, then scan and e-mail it back to midwifery, the student. (Note: according to the study referenced above, marking studentsí music occurred less than 1% of the total duration of face-to-face lessons.) No real-time coaching: Sometimes teachers help students count out loud by counting with them while they play, but sync issues over Mental Equality distance lessons will make this impossible. Sometimes a teacher might say, ďGood.
Yes. Ok, louder now, and now peak right here on this note,Ē etc. as the student plays (perhaps even singing along sometimes to encourage certain dynamic or articulative expression), and this also becomes impossible. Music theory hassle: Students would need to hold their completed theory assignment up to victoria climbe, the webcam, and Mental Health Equality, their teacher will have to copper mass, tell them what to circle and Equality, fix for next week. Some of my students are working in The Practice of Harmony , a very heavy college theory textbook/workbook combo, and some of which between hrothgar and beowulf? those pages can take a solid two or three minutes to correct (e.g., one page might have students identify 120 major, minor, augmented and diminished chords). Mental? In that case, the students may need to scan their homework each week and victoria climbe, e-mail it to me. Teacher Modeling: According to the same study as referenced above, teacher modeling in face-to-face lessons occurred 28% more often than in distance lessons. Teacher modeling is what happens when a teacher demonstrates and the student strives to Mental, make themselves sound like the teacher. Looking from a different angle: Sometimes (but not very often), I will walk to the other side of the piano in order to see what the studentís hands look like from the other side, in cases where I have to look specifically at the left hand thumb or the right hand pinky (my piano is to the left of my student piano).
Since I canít do that in a distance lesson, students would have to reposition their webcams. Numbered measures: Both copies of the sheet music must always have numbered measures (except for very short beginning pieces that are only 8 or 16 measures long). No teacher accompanying: Advanced students who perform concertos will not be able to copper mass, benefit from their teacherís free accompanying in Health Equality Essay recitals, festivals and competitions Ė theyíll have to hire a separate accompanist. Note-taking: The student must take notes in their notebook. Teddy Bear? Younger students (and especially very young students) are slow note-takers, which would make it necessary for the parent to Equality Essay, take notes. Teachers could overcome this by describe the relationship between typing the Mental Health Equality Essay studentís practice goals each week into an e-mail to the student during the vikings lesson (Microsoft OneNote on a tablet PC could be a good solution for Mental Health Essay this since OneNote combines writing and typing). Up-Front Cost: Students should purchase high-quality webcams so that the nursing teacher can see as much detail as possible, and should probably consider purchasing a microphone as well, such as the Yeti Blue Microphone. Warming Up: It could be seen as a bad thing that the student has their lesson immediately after warming up, because almost every performance situation students encounter (whether playing at the homes of friends and Equality Essay, family or playing in recitals) involves playing when not warmed up. Words Describe? Traditional lessons simulate this experience every week. Similarly, playing on the teacherís piano gives students the valuable experience of adjusting to Mental Health, different instruments, which is copper mass what happens at othersí homes, recitals, festivals and competitions.
Distractions: (added 4/16/12) Students may be more distracted at home by Mental Essay noises made by siblings, animals, neighbors, etc. (Thanks to chainmail, Lyle Compton for Equality Essay pointing this out in a comment below.) Itís worth noting that these last two points (warming up and distractions) would also apply to the face-to-face teacher who travels to studentsí homes. Both Google+ and Skype are free, and both offer the ability to connect to multiple people at the same time. Copper Mass? This presents the possibility of going over music theory, music history, etc. with a group of students at the same time. This is Mental Equality also why ďNo Group LessonsĒ did not make it onto copper mass the cons list above: with Google+ Hangouts or Skype group calls, teachers can put together group sessions in Health Equality which students can perform live for each other. That said, I think Skype still has better control over echo effects caused by having your speaker turned up past a certain volume, which makes your chat partner hear their own voice as an cultural echo. Itís also worth noting that piano lessons take up more ďroomĒ spatially than harmonica or oboe lessons since they involve the full length of a keyboard. A harmonica teacher only needs to see the face of the player, while a piano teacher needs to see the entire body and keyboard from a good angle. They need to get a good view of the pedals, and the webcam needs to be placed sufficiently above the keyboard so that arms donít get in the way of hands. I will definitely add to Health Equality, this list if any reader comments point out factors I may have overlooked.
The most personally relevant drawbacks for me in giving Skype lessons are the which describe hrothgar and beowulf? following: Draining: Everything takes more energy over Skype than in Mental Health person. Vermont Teddy? If the student starts playing in the wrong measure, I have to verbally describe where to start. Things that would only take a couple seconds in Equality Essay an in-person lesson take 15, 20 or 30 seconds when working over Skype, and copper mass, this effect is felt throughout the entire lesson. It also didnít help that I had to do a lot of prep work before each lesson, turning on the laptop on the piano, setting up the webcam, bringing up my e-mail to see theory assignments and print out sheet music, etc. Audio normalization: Skype is not designed for Equality music, it is copper mass designed for speech. Quiet speech is Equality amplified to a normal volume, and loud speech is variability de-amplified to a normal volume. Audio engineers know this as ďnormalizationĒ, and this is the worst thing you can possibly do to music. Health Equality? I can still tell the difference between piano and forte, but hearing the difference between mezzo-forte and chainmail, forte, or piano and pianissimo, takes a level of Health conscious focus on my part that is midwifery taxing.
I have to concentrate so much on the timbre of the piano instead of being able to just rely on the decibel level like we can do in real life, and Mental Health, this distracts me from thinking about nursing, bigger issues in the music. Duplex and lag awkwardness: In telecommunications, duplex is the type of connection that is required to Mental Equality Essay, allow parties to transmit audio data at the same time. Chainmail? Unfortunately, Skype is only half-duplex. In real life, when two people start to talk, they quickly stop and figure out who should go. Mental? When it happens over copper mass Skype, only Equality one of the people is heard.
They must finish speaking before they can be interrupted. Teddy? Skype lag complicates this further, because if you need to stop someone, they get your message delayed, and because theyíre transmitting, they may not get your message at all. And itís kind of funny when both people are trying to figure out who should talk first: they both see that each other is patiently silent, so they both decide to talk. But since they are seeing an image that is anywhere between 0.5 and 4 seconds delayed, they donít realize that they both started to talk at Mental Health Equality Essay the same time until these seconds have passed. Of course, nearly all the ďconsĒ in the above list are felt as well, and it is the accumulation of describe the relationship all these limitations that make Skype lessons so much more challenging than in-person lessons. Mental Health Essay? I especially notice the decrease in my own ďteacher modelingĒ to which words the relationship between hrothgar, students. Because of all the extra time and energy required to Health Equality, accomplish things in Skype lessons, I always have a sense of needing to be as fast and vikings, efficient as possible, leaving less time for demonstration.
There may also be a small part of me that believes the modeling would be less helpful when theyíre hearing me demonstrate through Skype rather than hearing it in Essay person. Having said that, Iíve done Skype lessons at cultural a very advanced level before (with good supporting technology and fast Internet connections), as well as with an early intermediate adult, and Mental, it felt doable. For reasons that I will outline in great detail in describe hrothgar and beowulf? a distant blog post, advanced students are easier to work with than beginners. Perhaps the added ease of working with an advanced student counteracts a lot of the extra energy needed to make the limitations of distance lessons work. What a thorough list! Iíve only Health Essay one addition to suggest for the PRO list: My students have found that they like being able to practice right after the which words describe between hrothgar and beowulf? lesson while things are fresh. I used to Mental Health Essay, do this at college at the suggestion of which words and beowulf? my professor. Our private students canít do this if they have a commute home to make after the Mental Health lesson. But Skype/Google+ students can!
Yes, of course! Thatís a big one. Thanks, and Iíll credit you for thinking of it. Distraction, in the form of words describe hrothgar and beowulf? a TV or sound system playing in another room, siblings running and shouting elsewhere in Equality the home while the student tries to cultural variability, concentrate, babies crying, even cooking smells drifting in to Mental Health Essay, make the mouth water, pets wandering in vikings chainmail and demanding attention or feeding, all are potential downsides to teaching in a studentís home. I would imagine that at least some of the same situations would apply to Skype/Google students, even if they are using headphones. Another good one Ė thanks. Added to Mental, the end of the ďconsĒ list.
Iíve found those exact distractions at victoria climbe one my trumpet teacherís home! But an understandable challenge all the same. Great Article. I have been kicking the tires on introducing SKYPE and GOOGLE+ lessons to Lessons In Your Home (our in-home music school). But I think we are going to take the plunge. I guess one aspect i canít get over is starting beginners, which we do often. I have 0 experience teaching ďdistanceĒ lessons. I am assuming incorrectly that the con list gets mush bigger when focusing on just beginners. Iím thinking of Equality aspects like: A. how to hold, handle, manipulate, and approach your instrument. B. Posture (not sure how much you can see)
C. Feel, is copper mass there a key, pad or valve thatís sticking. Jay, I suspect youíre right about Equality Essay, that. I do suspect that self-directed learners are easier to teach via Skype than beginners, so I think itís extra critical that the parent be present, to the point where theyíre almost taking lessons too. Victoria Climbe? Of course, self-directed learners are also easier to Mental, teach in words describe hrothgar person than beginners too. #128578; Chad, thank you for taking the time to create this marvelous infolist!
Iím just thinking about trying this, and will look into Mental Essay the Google method. Which Words The Relationship? I just know that youíve taken a lot of the rocks out of the road for a teacher just starting to Mental, try this out! I will definitely require a parent present, which I actually require for regular lessons, anyway. Vermont Teddy Bear Canada? I think Iíll actually try it with a teacher friend first, too! Beverly Holt Guth. thanks for the extensive and Mental Health Essay, informative list. I am a student and council, my teacher has moved to the US. We will try online teaching and hopefully it works.
It is possible when playing an electrified instrument to plug an output from the Health Essay amp (using the copper mass effects loop) directly into the mic input of the laptop. this would improve sound quality- but then you need to Mental, find a work around for the voice mic- which is automatically disabled. thanks again. My experience with ďlong-distanceĒ learning is that no beginner can succeed. There are simply too many bad habits and bad practices that canít be communicated even via Skype. The only success Iíve ever had with teaching folks at a distance was with those that already played pretty damn well and cultural, were able to follow directions. HmmmÖwhat about a combination of half live and half Skype? Do you think thatíd be more doable and realistic to achieve? Hi Penny, even doing all Skype lessons is ďrealistic to achieveĒ Ė itís just a matter of opportunity cost for you and your students (i.e. how much are your students missing out on each time they have a Skype lesson, and how much are you missing out on when you give them).
Pingback: Singing Lessons Via Skype or Google+ - Celeste Siciliano. Now tell me, [ before this semi pro adult, begins taking again next tuesday via sype] Does the Mental Equality few second delays Ēmess with the inter-actionĒ between out of vikings chainmail state teacher and myself/. It just seems like we interupt one another be the question/ That last part of your message doesnít make any sense to me Ė perhaps resubmit your comment and Essay, Iíll take a stab at answering itÖ Also please be more specific about vikings chainmail, what you mean by ďinteractionĒ Ė talking? Playing? What are you asking specifically? What kind of webcam do you and your students use? Do you have problems with lag or with choppy frames?
thanks for the pros and cons list. Iím moving to Germany soon and looking to keep a few of my piano students. Iím going to invest on the cam and Health, mic you recommend. Quick question about words between, your webcam set-up: do you toggle between overhead and side-cam? What is your ideal placement?
Also- what is your mic placement like with the Yeti? Wow, good luck on Mental Health Equality the move to Germany! Thatís quite a move. Vermont Bear Canada? I thought moving across the country from Essay, Reno to Pittsburgh was a big dealÖ I donít toggle between overhead and side cam, but that would be awesome if I could. Iím sure thereís an easy way to do that, but I just havenít looked into it.
I place my webcam on the music rack of the piano my students use during lessons Ė I teach on two pianos. My piano is to the left of the studentís piano (so it would be ďsecondoĒ in a two-piano piece). I prefer students place their webcams as close to where my head normally is when I teach. We get used to certain views of things, and I think it helps our intuition to not have to change our point of view. I think the Yeti can be placed just about anywhere. I place mine on top of my piano. thanks Chad. Iím looking forward to testing out scenarios. A really helpful analysis of pros and cons, thank you! I have had trouble with Flute sounding as though itís blowing overtones on Skype, and dropping out, causing me to have to victoria climbe, abandon the call in Mental Health Essay the end.
Moreover, the time lag means I cannot play along as accompanist in vikings chainmail Full Duplex. That said, I am able to do Half Duplex successfully for most purposes, such as for a Piano less and no problem with anything involving Orchestration, Composition, Music Technology. For Music Tech, Iíve found itís essential that the student use a mobile device so it can swing round to Mental Health Essay, show the computer screen, and other parts of the studio. Can be tricky if theyíve not got Skype on their phone yet, or their wifi is slow, and Iíve spent hours getting this going, that cannot be charged for. Obviously itís necessary to use screensharing for detailed computer work, since the resolution on Skype is too fuzzy. Awesome list. I teach piano and voice online and have a lot of trouble with the voice lessons because of the audio normalization as well as the which words the relationship hrothgar fact that while they are singing I canít sing or play piano at the same time and actually hear anything they are singing.
I keep hoping for Mental Essay someone to write some better software of fix Skype. On the other hand piano lessons are great and copper mass, like you said itís really difficult to hear the difference between p and mp or f and ff. It was good to see this list to know that itís not just me having these issues. Nice List. Mental Health Equality? Thanks. Great list as Iím thinking about vermont teddy canada, trying this. Another ďproĒ that Iím hoping will be the case. . .Continued lessons with the same great teacher you started with. Iíve have a student whose family will be making a military move.
He has Aspergers Syndrome, so establishing the Mental social connection was the challenge for him. Victoria Climbe? He is 12 so totally into technology. Health Equality Essay? . .so weíll give it a try. Am considering teaching Skype lessons and have a question. Do teachers need to be extra careful when taking on Skype students, in respect to their practise committments? Iím guessing itís much harder to handle the non practisers here, cos they tend to copper mass, have more problems with rhythm and Health, technique? Iíd say that everything that is a problem in normal in-person lessons is amplified when giving Skype lessons because of the extra challenges of communication, inability to play with the student, inability to point to their music, etc. In terms of mental fatigue, after each Skype lesson I feel like Iíve given 1.5 normal lessons. Teddy Canada? But since my Skype students have generally been adults, non-practicers havenít really been a problem Ė adults tend to beat themselves up when they donít practice, so you know theyíre already doing their best to make time for practicing but canít always manage.
Do you have to have two webcams, one in the laptop and a second USB one? Ė as a teacher I want to be able to see their fingers/keyboard and their face when Iím talking to them. Second questions Ė other websites mention an app called Music reader where you can annotate and both of you can see the same music. Have you or anyone used this yet? Hi Heather, in the past I have not used two webcams, but I know that would certainly be helpful. Mental Equality? I havenít used Music Reader yet, but Iím sure if anyone here has, they will chime in. Well after all that over-thinking it, over-researching it, I have a pupil in the US (Iím in the UK Ė he wanted to carry on with me) so I had to take the plunge. All that worry! Whe it cam down to it, all we Ďre using is my laptop on describe between hrothgar a high stool, and he is using a tablet hitched onto a goose-necked holder attached to an ironing board. And everything works fine Ė no headphones, no speakers, no extra webcams.
Oh, all that worrying I did! I find that it takes me more time both before and after the Equality Essay lesson Ė any music we might want to do I need to think ahead and victoria climbe, have it scanned and Mental Health Equality, emailed. Any duets I have to cultural variability, play and record the duet part so he can play along at home Ė and not playing duets live is Mental Health a BIG miss, I must say; I use them so much in face-to-face lessons. And I write up all the lesson notes and email them Ė in variability a face-to-face lesson Iím writing in Mental the pupilís notebook as we go along. But apart from which the relationship between hrothgar, those things, the Mental Essay sound is fine, the vikings chainmail not-talking-at-the-same-time is Health Essay getting better, I can see his fingers and if I do need to see the LH little finger, say, I ask him to chainmail, re-position. Mother is there all the time Ė but always has been, so thatís a big help. In response to Jayís post (about five years ago!) I think and agree with many that teaching beginners is not something that I would try to do. I do spend a lot of time in face-to-face lessons moulding little fingers, helping wrists and arms float etc and I think putting all that into words and demos over Skype would be just too difficult. Maybe with parent thereÖbut it does sound very tricky.
To be honest, I donít enjoy it as much as a face-to-face lesson; possibly because of the talking thing. I think I like to have a banter and a joke and Mental Equality Essay, itís harder over Skype. But itís working great with minimal equipment. Thanks again for victoria climbe your article. Can a person teach lessons on an acoustic piano simply through Skype or does one need to hook the internet up to a keyboard?