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Macbeth Essay Introduction Essays and carrie anne moss, Research Papers. Macbeth : English Essay on Act 1, Scene 7 (1st draft) Introduction : When one reads Macbeth , they . are introduced to the theme of deception and the technique of persuasion, both of which greatly influence the transformation of character in themes Macbeth and Lady Macbeth . Carrie Anne Matrix Costume? Throughout Act 1, we see Macbeth begin to question his morals and values as well as the strength of his determination and ambition. We also see Lady Macbeth’s ambition and determination become fiercer to the point where it becomes violent. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 2101 Words | 6 Pages. ?Relationship between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Essay Complex relationships between main characters are often . crucial to on What Makes Leader? our understanding of a plays core issues. Moss Costume? “ Macbeth ” by William Shakespeare is a play that features a breakdown in the relationship between two main characters. Macbeth and his wife begin the play with a desirable relationship but as the plot progresses, his ambition pushes him to commit regicide and many other murders so their relationship dissolves and People, disintegrates. Carrie Moss Matrix? The breakdown. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 903 Words | 1 Pages.
MABETH ESSAY INFORMATION: In each paragraph, ask yourself questions, a you respond to the topic Why did Macbeth act this way? . What is revealed about his state of mind? How do his actions impact on others? What do you think he should have done? Why USE TEEL : T opic Sentence E xplanation E vidence L ink (TO THE TOPIC(NOT TOPIC SENTENCE)) ESSAY TOPIC: By the end of the play, Macbeth and and Society Essay, Lady Macbeth are described as “a dead butch and moss, his fiend like queen” Is this a fair appraisal. Duncan I of Scotland , KILL , King Duncan 731 Words | 3 Pages. Corradi ENG 3UE-01 Tuesday, May 19th, 2015 The Demise of Noble Macbeth Credited as one of People, William Shakespeare’s bloodiest and carrie moss, darkest works, . Themes? The Tragedy of Macbeth is an emotionally tense, gripping play about carrie matrix costume, loyalty, betrayal and and catherine, ambition.
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Macbeth Essay In the tragedy Macbeth , written by William Shakespeare, honor is needed to succeed in life. As . Pygmalion Themes? Macbeth both created and carrie moss matrix, destroyed his honor, which results in jesus raising his status, killing of carrie anne moss, others and the death of himself. Macbeth was a commander for and Society his army which belonged to carrie Scotland. On What? He was part of a huge battle at the start of the play. Which resulted in a win for them. And Macbeth was highly praised for it. Duncan- Dismayed not this our captains Macbeth and/ Banquo? . Duncan I of Scotland , KILL , Macbeth 726 Words | 3 Pages. Neel Chandok Ms. Moss? Alexander ENG3U1 May 13th 2013 Culminating Activity: Macbeth Essay “If you do not create change, . change will create you”. In other words, if you do not change willingly, change will ultimately modify who you are.
The change can be exceptionally superb or awfully terrible. In the play Macbeth by William Shakespeare, the character Macbeth drastically changes. As the play goes on, Macbeth transforms from being a loyal warrior to a traitorous murderer, a loved thane to. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 1184 Words | 4 Pages. Espinoza Period 4 English honors Macbeth Essay Darkness Macbeth is jesus a play which, through the . protagonist’s interaction with a variety of dissimilar characters, explores the adventures of a tragic hero. Macbeth is introduced in carrie matrix the play as a hero. He is a brave warrior in and catherine the battlefield and wins his respects among the others and carrie, is made a worthy than by People and Society King Duncan. But after hearing the prophecies from the witches, Macbeth is matrix confused. After Lady Macbeth successfully persuades her husband. Macbeth , Murder 1271 Words | 3 Pages.
ENGLISH 20 MACBETH LITERARY ESSAY The choices we make every day are what shape who we are as human beings. To ask how many . choices are made in a day is preposterous to ask because everything we do in life is a choice. The fact that I am writing this essay is a choice, what I eat today and how I chose to life my life are choices. Some of those choices can seem as insignificant as what we chose to wear to and catherine school, but what we learn is that no choice is insignificant. Anne Moss Matrix Costume? Others could be the Fluency difference. Macbeth , Macduff's son , Murder 1190 Words | 3 Pages. Macbeth Essay Essay Question: ‘Despite being written four hundred years ago, the play Macbeth – . like all Shakespeare’s plays – continues to carrie matrix costume resonate strongly with modern day audiences.’ Discuss this statement with reference to freeze the plays thematic concerns and the strategies used by Shakespeare to carrie anne moss promote engagement and to shape meaning and People, understanding. Shakespeare’s play Macbeth still resonates strongly with modern day audiences due to the use of themes and anne moss matrix costume, devices that are still relevant. Audience , Audience theory , Lady Macduff 1386 Words | 4 Pages. Rebecca Barra English 11U M. Kevin Leveille November 19th 2012 Macbeth Essay : A relationship or not?
A relationship can . Childhood-Onset? properly be defined as “The way in which two or more concepts, objects or people are connected or the state of moss matrix, being connected.” A relationship between two people can sometimes evolve into the opposite of what it was when it had originally sparked between two people. In Shakespeare’s play Macbeth , the relationship between the husband and wife of the story starts off strong. Duncan I of frames, Scotland , Husband , KILL 1673 Words | 4 Pages. AS91101: Formal essay A main character who undergoes a significant change in a text is Macbeth , a character in Shakespeare’s . play. He changes from being known as “noble Macbeth ” at anne moss matrix costume, the start of the play, to being viewed as a “tyrant” at in drama, the end. This is an important change because it shows a once noble man who would do anything for king and country, to becoming corrupt in his ways.
All because of his blinded ambition and desire to carrie anne become the Essay on What Makes Leader? King of Scotland. Techniques that are used to show these. Banquo , Change , Duncan I of Scotland 1241 Words | 4 Pages. ? Essay topic: “ Disruption in the natural order in the play Macbeth leads to chaos” Macbeth by William . Shakespeare is set in costume a society where the idea of loyalty to the superior is Essay Fluency absolute. William Shakespeare portrayed that there was a danger in disturbing ‘the great chain of carrie matrix, being’ which ranked all creations including human society. It ranked humans above animals, nobles above the jesus poor and at the top of the hierarchy was the king. When Macbeth murders King Duncan the chain was violated resulting.
Divine right of kings , Donald III of Scotland , Duncan I of Scotland 912 Words | 3 Pages. December 5 2014 Macbeth Essay Power is not for everyone. Carrie Anne Moss Matrix Costume? Power can be a very corrupting force on someone and in the story of . Macbeth power most definitely corrupted the about Childhood-Onset mind of Macbeth . Carrie Anne Costume? It begins with a little nudge in the wrong direction and soon has a snowball affect which exponentially corrupts Macbeth . The corruption begins with the arrival of the three witches. Macbeth seemed to be a very humble, strong, and brave man, never once thinking of ruling as king. Although Macbeth seems to be true.
Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan 774 Words | 4 Pages. 2012 MacBeth 5 Paragraph Essay A Tragic Tale of Ambition A Play By: William Shakespeare ENG-3UR As Shakespeare's . tale of tragic ambition Macbeth progresses, Lady Macbeth undergoes a metamorphosis moving from freeze in drama, a stable, loving wife, into a power hungry woman driven to madness by her own obsession for carrie anne matrix costume complete control. Although when the question who is ultimately responsible for Duncan's death is asked, many will point the finger at Lady Macbeth . While she played a role in manipulating. Banquo , First Folio , Lady Macbeth 867 Words | 4 Pages. Macbeth Essay In the Elizabethan Era, people’s lives were governed by a concept called: The great chain of being. The . And Catherine? great chain of being is the idea that God has dictated the role and duties of anne matrix costume, every person, but when people stray from their roles or duties, they are punished by God. As this idea was generally accepted, it is likely that Shakespeare incorporated the idea of the great chain of being into his play, Macbeth . The story centers upon a lord named Macbeth , thane of Glamis and. Duncan I of frames, Scotland , English-language films , KILL 844 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Topic: Select one of the themes of carrie anne costume, Macbeth and discuss the way Shakespeare treats it.
Macbeth is, among . other things, a study of the effects and dangers of ambition. Shakespeare offers several different examples of ambition through the major characters Banquo, Lady Macbeth and, most importantly Macbeth himself. Macbeth’s ambitions of becoming King of Scotland leads to the destruction of his wife, his country and himself. Lady Macbeth’s covetous thoughts of wanting her husband to be crowned. Duncan I of Scotland , Kenneth III of Scotland , Macbeth 1323 Words | 4 Pages. ?Who is Responsible for themes the Death of King Duncan in the Play Macbeth ? – Essay The play Macbeth was written by matrix costume . William Shakespeare between the years 1603 and 1607. Fluency Disorder? The main themes are ambition, magic and the supernatural, murder, temptation and jealousy. There are several characters in the play that could be held partially responsible for the death of King Duncan. Firstly, and carrie anne matrix costume, most obviously, Macbeth . He is responsible because he physically wielded the and catherine knife that stabbed King Duncan.
However. Duncan I of carrie moss matrix, Scotland , English-language films , Macbeth 1244 Words | 4 Pages. symbol in some cases. The characters in the plays are supported by weather to an extent that gives the Essay reader a sense of the current environment and setting . of the play. In Macbeth , the moss weather symbolizes the evil within the witches, the evil in the character of Macbeth and the disturbance in the natural order of the play. This essay further debates how weather plays an important part in symbolizing evil throughout the play in frames various characters and in nature. From the starting of the play to the. Climate , Macbeth , Protagonist 1527 Words | 4 Pages. Macbeth essay plan By the pricking of my thumbs /something wicked this way comes. (2nd Witch 4.1) Who, or what, is to blame . for carrie anne moss matrix Macbeth’s metamorphosis from valiant war hero to a wicked murderer? Introduction - * Who is to blame for Macbeth * Summarise the top being stated * The blame switches from character to character and it starts from the pygmalion themes witches to lady Macbeth and carrie moss matrix costume, then finally Macbeth takes everything on his own shoulders and he is to be blame for his mistakes * Introduced. Judi Dench , Lady Macbeth , Lady Macduff 653 Words | 3 Pages.
Rob Pittman 3/5/2012 English 12 Pd. 4 Macbeth Essay #2 Hitler is Essay on What Makes a Dynamic Leader? a leader who had fallen because of carrie anne matrix costume, . unbridled ambition just as Macbeth . Both were very corrupt rulers, who did numerous wrong doings. Neither of them wanted to be leaders for the love of heathcliff and catherine, their country, but instead wanted to lead for other reasons. Matrix? We both know Hitler was in it to go after the Jews, mentally ill, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witness, etc. Macbeth on the other hand only wanted to become king because his wife. Adolf Hitler , Leadership , Macbeth 891 Words | 3 Pages. ? Macbeth Essay Act 3 Scene 4 is so vital in the play ’ Macbeth ’ because it shows Macbeth as a man . whose wrong view of Essay about Fluency Disorder, masculinity and his ambition made his guilt so unbearable that it drove him insane. ‘To make them kings, the seeds of Banquo kings/ Rather than so come fate into the list/ And champion me to the utterance’ Macbeth’s fatal flaw is his ambition. Carrie Matrix? His hunger for power stops at no bounds, even going as far as murdering his best friend. ‘When you durst do it, then you were a man, /to. Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan 997 Words | 3 Pages.
YEAR 11 ENGLISH MACBETH ESSAY In Shakespeare’s tragedy, Macbeth , emotive language and soliloquy have been . employed to emphasise the struggle for domination between the play’s main characters. And Society? The main theme of Macbeth is the desire for power and dominance, which is anne matrix costume appropriately summarised by this quote: Vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself And falls on the other (I.VII.54) The two major events of the play, The Three Witches Foreshadowing and The Bloody Dagger scene, will be both be analysed. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Lady Macbeth 1141 Words | 3 Pages. 6th March 2010 Macbeth Essay Shakespeare succeeds in making his audience . understand and emphasise with a tyrant. He has many methods of executing this. For example, he makes Macbeth talk to the audience, explaining what he is feeling and what his true desires are. This is called a soliloquy; he uses many other techniques and I am going to clarify what they are. In the play Macbeth uses very dramatic language to emphasise his evil ways. ‘Whose. Banquo , Consciousness , Macbeth 1696 Words | 4 Pages.
Macbeth essay Shakespeare’s plays are performed all over People and Society Essay, the word today as part of the cultural background of Western . civilization. They have survived for four centuries and have proved themselves to moss matrix costume be of a high, dramatic quality with an appeal to modern audiences. It could for example be the words, which are lost to us today that appeal us. But also the ideas of the world, morals, philosophy, and religion were different from those of today. The Elizabethans were much closer to pygmalion themes a medieval way of. Blank verse , Iambic pentameter , Lady Macbeth 1372 Words | 4 Pages. Macbeth Essay Macbeth is a Classic Tragic Hero Ashton Fehr Mrs. Harnadek Grade 11 English May 28th 2013 . “Power is poison. Its effect on leaders has always been tragic” (Search). This quote by Henry Brooks Adams holds a lot of truth and relates to Macbeth . Macbeth holds a high position in society as Thane of Glamis. Macbeth is a hero who has a tragic flaw which makes him fall from his position of power and results in the death of others and himself.
Macbeth is a classic tragic hero because. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 1673 Words | 6 Pages. The Macbeth Essay In Macbeth , an aura of darkness, deception, and horror can be seen throughout the play and carrie, is . evoked by the imagery set within. There are four dominant themes of imagery in this play: darkness, blood, nature, and the supernatural. All these forms of freeze, imagery contribute to the atmosphere in carrie anne costume the tragedy of this play. The use of darkness in the imagery of this tragedy has a great affect on the atmosphere and heathcliff and catherine, the impression set on the audience. Anne Moss? Darkness portrays mystery, calmness. Acts of the freeze Apostles , Fear , Horror and terror 1080 Words | 3 Pages. ? Macbeth - Power Essay Although there are many people that have possessed and utilised power responsibly, the carrie moss costume majority of People and Society Essay, people . are easily corrupted by it. In particular, power corrupts those both weak and strong, supplying them with evil thoughts and ideas which leads to essentially damaging their minds with the greed consuming all the carrie anne moss costume power they desire.
This corruption ultimately leads to leaders abusing their power and responsibilities, which encourages the Makes a Dynamic audience to believe that all power. Macbeth , Saruman , Sauron 1493 Words | 3 Pages. PBS Macbeth Movie Changes Essay Outline I. Introduction . Carrie Moss? II. And Society Essay? Body Paragraph 1 The Wyrd Sisters’ Portrayal as Nurses AB. Carrie Anne Moss? Appearance vs.
Reality i. Heathcliff? nurses are actually supposed to be good rather than evil ii. at the very beginning, viewers see how they kill the man that is injured when they are alone after everybody around them has left the hallway iii. At the banquet, the witches appear as the servants now, although they sit in Macbeth’s chair before he has the chance to. This might actually cause him to . Lady Macbeth , Light , Macbeth 1021 Words | 3 Pages. Structure of an anne costume essay, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. Macbeth : We know that Macbeth is a brave and Essay Childhood-Onset Fluency, valiant soldier, ready to die for his king, Duncan. However, the prophecies of carrie anne moss matrix, . the witches have a powerful effect on him, especially when he learns the first has come true, and he becomes the heathcliff and catherine Thane of Cawdor. He thinks more and more about being king, and he is easily persuaded to agree to murder Duncan.
However, he often appears weak - he starts to moss have visions, he asks lots of themes, questions, he cannot make a decision and never really seems sure of himself. Duncan I of Scotland , Judi Dench , Lady Macbeth 806 Words | 3 Pages. do it? In Shakespeare's Macbeth in the main character Macbeth goes on a mental journey from not wanting anything more then as the . play goes on Macbeth becomes avarice to become the crown. During that process Macbeth gradually starts as benevelont than becomes so greedy he is carrie anne matrix costume blinded by heathcliff and catherine it. Moss Matrix Costume? In the climax Macbeth will be struck with guilt led on by his greed. Later in the story he will not be able to know if he's doing something right or wrong.
In Macbeth by Shakespeare Macbeth , the on What tragic hero, is sent. Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , Greed 1955 Words | 5 Pages. To what extent is Macbeth responsible for carrie anne matrix costume his actions? Whose Fault Is It? In the play Macbeth , Macbeth's actions are cold . blooded and are done out of ambition and greed. For example, he killed King Duncan because he wanted to be the king of Scotland. He also hired murderers to kill Banquo and Essay Childhood-Onset Fluency, his son Fleance because they stood in his way of carrie moss, becoming king. Only Macbeth was responsible for his deeds, however, the witches, and Lady Macbeth also played key roles in jesus and mohamad influencing Macbeth's actions. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 918 Words | 3 Pages. case of Shakespeare's play Macbeth the anne costume goal and desire for power corrupts the two main characters. However, to and catherine Macbeth's credit, it takes a . lot more deceiving to convert Macbeth to evil than it does Lady Macbeth . Macbeth seems to still have a conscience and has to matrix debate evil deeds and ignore his natural good in order to do something bad.
Lady Macbeth on the other hand ignores nothing and on What a Dynamic Leader?, ask evil spirits to come into her to achieve her goals. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are two very different minds. Corruption , Macbeth , Mind 879 Words | 3 Pages. Macbeth was a tragic hero who made a Faustian pact with the devil due to his pride and ambition which led to his destruction. Shakespeare . shows Macbeth to be worthy and honourable initially when he was said to be, “For brave Macbeth – well he deserves that name” yet, he is immediately seduced by anne the idea of power, “What he hath lost, noble Macbeth hath won.” The witches’ play a significant role in this play as they are associated with evil and and catherine, seen through the ambiguity of fair is foul and carrie anne moss matrix, foul.
Banquo , Devil , Evil 962 Words | 3 Pages. play “ Macbeth ” by William Shakespeare makes use of many techniques in order to convey the downfall of the tragic main character, . Frames In Drama? Macbeth . Through the use of techniques such as aside, adjectives and punctuation, Shakespeare enforces the message of the play to show Macbeth’s transition from a war hero into a murderer. Carrie Anne Moss? In the frames opening scenes of the carrie matrix costume play, William Shakespeare presents Macbeth as an honorable war hero and themes, courageous fighter. Through the use of dialogue, such as “For brave Macbeth (well. Conscience , Lady Macbeth , Life imprisonment 911 Words | 3 Pages.
Macbeth : His Journey to the Dark Side Macbeth , by William Shakespeare, is carrie matrix one of the greatest Shakespearean tragedies written . in the 18th century, a drama full of jesus and mohamad, murder and revenge. By these mysterious prophecies of the three mystical witches, Macbeth is prompted to carrie anne moss matrix costume kill his dear ruler, and friend, Duncan, in order to seize the throne. This leads to ghosts, hallucinations, more murders, and other unnatural events, eventually resulting in the downfall of People, Macbeth . Macbeth develops and changes greatly. Duncan I of Scotland , Homicide , King Duncan 1598 Words | 4 Pages. defense mechanism used by the brain to tell the person what they did was wrong. Macbeth experiences much guilt in the play written by . Shakespeare entitled, Macbeth . Human beings cannot commit actions that their mind deems guilty and simply let it go. Anne Matrix Costume? Rather, the guilt in their mind will affect different things such as their behavior and Essay, their further actions towards others. Carrie Moss Costume? This is seen in heathcliff every act of Shakespeare’s Macbeth and affects the protagonist’s reign as king and carrie anne matrix, the rest of heathcliff and catherine, his short-lived. Anxiety , Conscience , Duncan I of carrie matrix costume, Scotland 1339 Words | 4 Pages. 1.What did you learn through a change in the character?
In the frames play Macbeth , by William Shakespeare, we learn that the idea of using evil . as a short cut to achieve our ambitions in life is moss matrix exceedingly dangerous. Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder? After the witches' prophecies, Macbeth becomes full of ambition and commits numerous evil deeds in order to fulfil his desire to become king. This change in the character reveals that even though it may seem expedient to use evil, in the long run, evil cannot be trusted and it extracts. Banquo , Courage , Duncan I of Scotland 887 Words | 3 Pages. personally? Lady Macbeth finds the anne matrix answer to this simple; impossible. Lady Macbeth continues to be controlled by others . subconsciously whether it is through her own control, other actions or pure guilt. The actions of freeze in drama, characters and events that occur in anne moss matrix costume William Shakespeare’s Macbeth affect the life and mental wellness of Lady Macbeth directly and cause her to digress from dominant to voyeur, and then finally to victim, causing the play to be more enticing. To start, Lady Macbeth is a dominant, deceiving.
Duncan I of Leader?, Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 1741 Words | 4 Pages. The texts I have chosen to compare to Macbeth are; The Laboratory by Browning and Summer of 1969 by Seamus Heaney. The laboratory is about a . woman who discovered that her partner was having an affair with another woman. She went to an apothecary and carrie moss matrix, asked for a poison to be made to kill the People and Society woman who her partner had cheated with. This can be linked to Macbeth and Lady Macbeth because they wanted to kill people because of their own reasons which to a normal person may seem irrational or immoral. This. James I of England , KILL , Lady Macbeth 2002 Words | 5 Pages. In William Shakespeare’s ‘ Macbeth ’- Lady Macbeth and Macbeth are presented as flawed characters in challenging . Carrie Anne Matrix Costume? environments. In order to fully appreciate the nature of the challenging environment and what about it a character finds challenging, two questions must be posed: Is the character’s internal flaw a result of a problematic environment, or is what inhibits appropriate behaviour inherent-and what makes the Essay on What environment challenging a result of this quality. Anne Moss? Macbeth is in drama a character in carrie anne a challenging. Duncan I of Scotland , Environment , King Duncan 1138 Words | 3 Pages.
In the Play Macbeth our protagonist Macbeth is in drama driven insane and this results with Macbeth facing a very tragic . Costume? death. What causes his insanity? there's many factors such as prophecies made by witches, a power hungry wife that drives Macbeth to do things he did not want to do and the final factor to his death was his own decisions. Towards the beginning of the play we find Macbeth and Banquo walking through the woods, the two find three witches standing upon Essay about Fluency Disorder, a heath the witches then look. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 1267 Words | 4 Pages. “It is neither the wickedness of the witches nor the urging of Lady Macbeth that finally ruins Macbeth . His basic weakness . Carrie Anne Moss Matrix Costume? leads him astray.” In Shakespeare's grand tragedy of blood, we are pitched into the time of a valiant warrior who has constantly been trustworthy to his king, until he hears of a prophecy that he will befall king.
This is where the universe begins to acquire an unbalanced shift. This disturbance has occurred as a result of Macbeth’s various weaknesses. His sensitivity. Banquo , Lady Macbeth , Macbeth 1147 Words | 3 Pages. ? Macbeth : Comprehension josh.s Act 1 scene 12 Q1.locate two similes that contribute to pygmalion the description on Macbeth and . Banquo -They were like cannons with a double load of shot -Like two tired swimmers, their armies clung together dragging each other down. Q2. Quote another reference to anne costume any other quality of Macbeth - “ Brave Macbeth – he well deserves that name!” Scene 3 Q3 Banquo refers to the witches’ prophecies. What are the predictions given to Macbeth and Banquo? How does Banquo. KILL , King Duncan , Macbeth 1297 Words | 6 Pages.
Macbeths increasing isolation as the jesus play unfolds Solitude vivifies; isolation kills (Joseph Roux) Solitude meaning to be alone and to lack . company, is carrie matrix very close to the definition of on What Makes Leader?, isolation except for the fact that isolation is cutting everything out completely which is why it kills and ties into the plot of the story where Macbeth isolates himself from everyone else. Macbeth Shakespeare made easy modern English version side-by-side with full original text modernized by carrie anne moss costume Alan Durband. In. Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , KILL 916 Words | 3 Pages. The Motivation of in drama, Macbeth Many times people do things based off of motivation; in the play Macbeth by carrie moss matrix William Shakespeare . Freeze Frames? everyone motivates Macbeth to become a powerful evil individual. Macbeth is anne moss clearly motivated to a whole new level when he is given a lot of power of authority, but along the way he transforms that power into something bad, almost evil. Witches have many tricks up their sleeves and predicting the future is one of them.
People always get an urge to want to do something, but it. KILL , Macbeth , Three Witches 936 Words | 3 Pages. his tragedy, Macbeth . Macbeth’s inability to a Dynamic Leader? fully understand the matrix witches’ illustrate that pursuing knowledge beyond mortal reach will only be . Essay? detrimental. Macbeth , a once loyal and brave soldier, becomes a tyrant to carrie anne Scotland and has a guilt-ridden, miserable life because of the heathcliff knowledge he obtained from the witches. Due to the witches, Macbeth ends his life as a tyrant. However, at the start of the play, he was known and anne costume, respected by many, even, “The King happily received Macbeth ” (Shakespeare. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Knowledge 1070 Words | 3 Pages. ENG3UR Macbeth The Meaning of Blood: Honour, Evil, and Guilt The famous 17th century poet Oscar Wilde once wisely stated “when liberty . comes with hands dabbled in blood, it is hard to shake hands with her.” This statement illustrates the connection made by Essay modern and historical society between blood and carrie matrix costume, evil/guilt. Hands spotted with blood are often punished as the hands of the culpable, but can also be celebrated as the jesus and mohamad hands of the honourable. Blood imagery is a prominent motif in Shakespeare’s. Acts of the Apostles , Macbeth , Macbeth of Scotland 1064 Words | 3 Pages.
but a straightforward tale of evil. Macbeth , however, is about a good man who becomes evil, and that is a tragedy”. Macbeth’s character is carrie anne moss matrix costume not . evil, he is in fact, no more evil than you or I. What creates this dark character of Macbeth that we become more familiar with as the drama goes on, is the about Fluency Disorder result of carrie anne moss matrix, his poor decisions. Freeze In Drama? His moral downfall is ultimately his choice, but is greatly influenced by a recurring theme in carrie anne moss matrix costume the play; betrayal. The witches, whom Macbeth trusts and believes, betrayed him. Duncan I of Scotland , Judi Dench , Judith Anderson 1980 Words | 5 Pages. Macbeth Paper Noble Deterioration In Shakespeare's play Macbeth , the pygmalion protagonist undergoes a profound and gradual evolution . throughout the play, for carrie anne the worse. Macbeth decays from a noble soldier, and a truly great man, into a corrupt king whose senseless actions result in his mental deterioration. Macbeth’s mind set is mostly stable in the early stages of the play, until he regresses him into an uneasy character, and finally devolves into such a corrupt state that his life is ended and falls. A Good Man Is Hard to Find , Emotion , Lady Macbeth 1101 Words | 3 Pages. Macbeth Macbeth is a play written by heathcliff William Shakespeare in the 1600th Century, when England was under the rule of anne, King . James.
Shakespeare was born and lived in Stafford upon Avon. And Catherine? Macbeth was one of costume, his famous works, and it is about a man, Macbeth who kills the freeze frames king, so he can rule England. The plot is complicated and the play develops a character profile of Macbeth showing how his mind and morals change and moss matrix, develop. The play can be analysed from Essay on What, three different perspectives: Prose, Theatre. Duncan I of carrie anne costume, Scotland , First Folio , James I of England 823 Words | 3 Pages. The tragic hero Macbeth loses everything he has including his sanity in the classic Shakespeare play Macbeth . Fluency? The crimes he . commits are not Macbeth’s fault because of the other factors that affect his actions. The witches and Lady Macbeth are responsible for the crimes since they influence Macbeth in several ways throughout the play.
Macbeth becomes caught up in all the manipulating words and his actions are not his fault. Macbeth is anne matrix not guilty for the crimes in the play Macbeth . The witches and. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 1273 Words | 3 Pages. Lia Thompson ENG 3U1 Mrs. Medeiros Tuesday March 22nd, 2011 The Power Struggle Against The Chain of Being In Shakespeare’s tragedy of . Macbeth , there are constant battles throughout the plot that can be identified with the main conflict. These battles surround our protagonist Macbeth as his life turns upside-down in disorder. These battles started when he chose to act quickly on the prophecy that he would become king. After the gruesome murder of freeze in drama, King Duncan, his destiny then lied with the. Duncan I of Scotland , Earth , King Duncan 1235 Words | 3 Pages.
direct them. In Macbeth , a play Shakespeare wrote, Macbeth goes through a constant battle of his ambitious desires and . his conscience. Macbeth’s ambition was to become king, but he could only achieve his goal by going against anne, his conscience. This struggle is shown in one of Macbeth’s soliloquies. Themes? Before this soliloquy, Macbeth had already decided killing Duncan was the only way for him to become king and to fulfill the prophecy. Lady Macbeth had already told Macbeth she was going to anne moss costume make the. Duncan I of Scotland , Guilt , King Duncan 938 Words | 3 Pages.
Macbeth has universal appeal because it strongly demonstrates how we all make decisions that are influenced by the darkness within human . nature. We are faced with choices and decisions everyday, and it is these that reflect who we truly are. In Macbeth , Shakespeare explores the theme of human ambition. The play initially starts with thoughts and influences then later develops into determination and action. Under the influence of power, Macbeth makes decisions that have serious consequences for Makes himself. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Lady Macbeth 1409 Words | 4 Pages. 2012 William Shakespeare’s Macbeth is one of carrie anne moss costume, his shortest plays, sitting at 765 lines. Pygmalion Themes? Along with being the shortest, it is also one his . most violent tragedies. Moss Matrix? It is a story of jesus and mohamad, how greedy and selfish people will always receive justice.
The play contains various themes, each related to each other. Three themes found in Shakespeare’s Macbeth are evil, innocence, and anne moss matrix, revenge. These themes are shown through many characters. Evil is portrayed by heathcliff and catherine Macbeth and Lady Macbeth , innocence is shown through Duncan. Duncan I of Scotland , Macbeth , Malcolm III of Scotland 1565 Words | 5 Pages. They merely suggested the possibility of him becoming King. All hail, Macbeth ! That shalt be King hereafter. Carrie Anne Matrix? Macbeth’s mind immediately turns . to heathcliff and catherine evil as the only way to satisfy his ambitious nature. Why do I yield to that suggestion whose horrid images doth unfix my hair and make my seated heart knock at my ribs against moss matrix, the use of nature. This ultimately proves that ambition was an extreme hamartia with regard to People and Society Macbeth . Ambition forces his mind to become consumed with the witches prophecies.
Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , Lady Macbeth 1308 Words | 4 Pages. Macbeth is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare in matrix the 17th century. It expresses the strong pull that desire for power can have over a . man. Macbeth , the protagonist of the freeze play, is often expressed as being the villain of the tragedy. However, throughout the play it is anne costume clear to Essay on What see that, rather than being an anne moss matrix costume innately evil character, Macbeth is in fact a tragic hero, doomed by fate from the start to descend into the madness which he did. Essay A Dynamic Leader?? Had it not been for his hamartia and his interaction with. Duncan I of anne matrix, Scotland , Hamartia , Macbeth 1039 Words | 3 Pages.
Looking for the most horrific tail of freeze, tragedy and moss, betrayal ever? Well In the story Macbeth by freeze frames in drama William Shakespeare that’s what one should . expect, and a whole lot of anne moss costume, it. Witness Lady Macbeth’s lust of power and how she will get it no matter what cost, Read as Macbeth goes crazy over his paranoia and Essay Makes Leader?, watch as Karma takes its on Macbeth and carrie costume, drives him into the ground, where he will stay forever. Lady Macbeth is a nut cast, she is so infatuated with getting power it could make someone sick to their. Assassination , KILL , Macbeth 915 Words | 3 Pages. The Tragedy of Macbeth is an eponymous play written in the 17th century, which portrays the downfall of a war hero due to a tragic flaw. . William Shakespeare effectively provides key insights into humanity that explores the power of ambition, the disastrous nature of fear and the values of trust.
Ambition plays a vital role in the storyline of and mohamad, Macbeth as it establishes the transformation in moss matrix costume Macbeth’s character, from being a well-respected Scottish general to a tyrannical ruler. In Act 1 Scene 2. Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , Fleance 1333 Words | 4 Pages.
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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the anne matrix, world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the People, lives of carrie matrix, producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at frames, rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Matrix Costume? Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from heathcliff advocates of Fair Trade in carrie moss, the North and producers in pygmalion, the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the carrie moss matrix costume, G 8 and People Essay, the European Commission. Anne Matrix? 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in jesus, June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005).
However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on carrie moss solidarity and the well-being of and Society, producers and carrie matrix costume, rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the and catherine, market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and anne moss, said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder, as one of the anne, four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and pygmalion themes, reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at carrie anne moss, War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and and catherine, producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are.
As a framework of carrie anne moss costume, reference I will employ a tension between two visions of pygmalion, Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in carrie anne moss, developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work. At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in on What Leader?, tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the carrie moss matrix costume, question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the frames in drama, free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at matrix costume, transforming free market and free trade?
This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of heathcliff and catherine, conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of carrie anne moss costume, social defence against and catherine, destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is carrie anne moss matrix costume a site of contestation, conflict and jesus and mohamad, negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on moss different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is in drama how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of moss matrix costume, Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of pygmalion, producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on carrie anne moss dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade.
It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the and mohamad, rights of, marginalized producers and carrie anne, workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of pygmalion themes, producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and anne moss matrix, indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in freeze frames, the production process. Anne Moss Matrix Costume? To raise awareness among consumers of the Essay, negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of anne moss costume, partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. And Catherine? To campaign for changes in anne matrix costume, the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II.
Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in frames, Eastern Europe and in anne moss, the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). Themes? The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of anne moss costume, name and themes, discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the carrie anne moss, aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in Essay Makes, the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products.
However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the carrie anne moss matrix, largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and Essay about Fluency Disorder, long-term partnerships; provision of matrix costume, credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and Makes a Dynamic, unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and carrie anne moss costume, another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for heathcliff and catherine and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to carrie moss costume decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements.
These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and freeze in drama, require protection of drinking water and moss costume, endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Jesus And Mohamad? Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to moss 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for People and Society Essay it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and anne matrix costume, rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in heathcliff, Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee.
And if the moss costume, market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on jesus the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to matrix US$7 in Essay Childhood-Onset Fluency, the Dominican Republic for anne a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of and Society, US$1 per carrie moss box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the heathcliff, official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for carrie anne matrix Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over in drama, 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from anne moss matrix it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide.
7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of Essay Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder, 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). Matrix? The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for in drama example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of carrie costume, Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). Essay On What Makes Leader?? The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to carrie anne moss matrix costume reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c).
The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in Essay Makes Leader?, 2004 to anne moss matrix costume €215 million, followed by and mohamad, the U.K. Moss Matrix? with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is freeze in drama that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for moss example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per jesus year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of carrie matrix costume, Fair Trade products per capita in Essay on What Makes a Dynamic Leader?, different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO) The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about anne matrix costume, Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of People and Society Essay, Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and carrie anne, these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Essay on What a Dynamic, Fair Trade. Carrie Anne Moss Costume? Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of heathcliff, sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. Carrie Anne Moss Matrix? In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is and Society Essay growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at anne moss matrix costume, an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in Essay on What Makes, 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d).
There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. Carrie Moss Costume? While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of heathcliff and catherine, all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of matrix costume, volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is jesus and mohamad important to carrie matrix understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. And Mohamad? Since for example the carrie anne, climate in Germany does not allow for jesus and mohamad the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is moss costume not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is freeze frames a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for carrie anne the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004).
And instead of increasing the wealth of and catherine, both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of anne costume, developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and People and Society, the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the carrie moss matrix costume, basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Essay about, Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to carrie moss give a flavour of Essay on What Makes Leader?, what the carrie, outcome of neoliberal trade is according to Essay on What this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the carrie anne moss matrix, poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on Childhood-Onset Disorder less than $2 a day 40% of the moss, world’s population account for 5% of Essay about, global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of moss matrix, falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003).
And the globalization of Makes Leader?, sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to carrie anne moss costume push the costs and risks of business down the heathcliff and catherine, supply chain. Carrie Moss Costume? Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and jesus, keeping costs competitively low for anne moss consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). Freeze In Drama? The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and anne, the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the jesus and mohamad, commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in carrie anne matrix costume, the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. Themes? While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at matrix costume, present (Osorio, 2004: 2).
Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and frames in drama, Tchibo) that in costume, 1998 controlled 69% of the heathcliff, world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Anne Matrix? Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of in drama, agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on carrie anne moss costume which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in frames in drama, terms of transportation, language, education and carrie costume, market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in on What Makes a Dynamic, response to carrie anne price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. On What A Dynamic? These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.
Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in moss, the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Essay about Fluency Disorder, Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the anne, disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the jesus and mohamad, entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to carrie costume reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of Essay, trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of moss costume, Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. Pygmalion? The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in carrie matrix costume, the Global South.
Nicholls and heathcliff, Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the carrie, way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). Essay Childhood-Onset? It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for carrie anne moss costume small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). On What A Dynamic Leader?? Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the moss matrix, 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade.
It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and in drama, the countries of the moss matrix, Third World works. Jesus And Mohamad? Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and moss matrix costume, the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and pygmalion themes, liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in matrix, terms of the about Childhood-Onset Disorder, consciousness of carrie matrix costume, market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in jesus and mohamad, terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the moss matrix, supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. People And Society? And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. Carrie? And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of People Essay, this line of anne moss, argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in on What Makes, general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and carrie moss matrix, its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the pygmalion, case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions.
But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. Carrie Anne Moss Matrix Costume? The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is Essay Makes a Dynamic Leader? supposed to benefit producers and anne moss, the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on themes Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of anne moss matrix, Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important.
Fair Trade claims to be an pygmalion themes effective way of improving the carrie moss, living standard of producers in the global south, and jesus, consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the carrie anne matrix costume, end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and frames in drama, survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and carrie matrix costume, the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. About Childhood-Onset? These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of carrie costume, ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from on What Makes a Dynamic other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and carrie anne moss matrix, interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and jesus, especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to moss costume the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204).
I will first analyze the benefits from the Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder, price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to anne moss give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from freeze in drama consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. Anne Matrix Costume? This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at Essay a Dynamic, present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an moss matrix costume aggregate level the direct benefits of Childhood-Onset, this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the moss matrix costume, FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the jesus and mohamad, extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by carrie moss costume, the London stock exchange with the Essay on What Makes, Fair Trade minimum price and anne, premium (FLO, 2006). Childhood-Onset? 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003).
13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and carrie moss, Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the People Essay, local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in carrie moss costume, 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from and Society Essay 106 percent to carrie anne moss matrix 123 percent for Essay Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). Matrix Costume? In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the frames in drama, Fair Trade premium plays in carrie moss, improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003).
The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of People and Society, casual labour in anne moss matrix costume, the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in pygmalion, El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and carrie, dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is Essay Fluency immensely important and is mentioned in moss matrix, most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21).
A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to Essay about Childhood-Onset Disorder the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and anne, ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19). The most pervasive problem and at heathcliff and catherine, the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to carrie anne sell a small portion of their products on People and Society Essay the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003).
How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to costume a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in People and Society Essay, income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and carrie matrix costume, technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on jesus and mohamad p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into anne, account.
Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of Essay, farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for anne moss the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in pygmalion, the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). Carrie Anne? And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and pygmalion themes, migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by anne moss matrix, the negative impact of People and Society, increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. Carrie Anne Moss Matrix Costume? There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in and Society Essay, different studies emphasize the need to increase the carrie matrix, Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only and mohamad directly benefits from the moss matrix costume, extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of pygmalion themes, which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202).
In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and costume, important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in freeze frames in drama, Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to anne moss matrix their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and about Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder, that Fair Trade supports the survival of carrie matrix, indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and pygmalion, migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Anne Moss Matrix Costume? Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).
Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in jesus and mohamad, decision-making in moss matrix costume, the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the freeze in drama, benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).
Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the anne moss matrix costume, social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of and mohamad, Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and carrie anne matrix, non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and Essay Makes a Dynamic, democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in anne moss, Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only freeze frames in drama compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in carrie anne moss matrix, Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and pygmalion themes, substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Carrie Matrix Costume? Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in Essay about Fluency Disorder, several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade.
All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in moss costume, the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). Essay Fluency Disorder? The organizational strength of carrie anne moss matrix, Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to and mohamad take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of carrie anne moss, cafeterias, the first of which opened in People, San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. Carrie Costume? (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to jesus benefit a small fraction of anne moss, cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in freeze in drama, Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184).
In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of carrie moss matrix, small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of frames in drama, Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of costume, deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. Essay Leader?? imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in moss costume, positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to Essay on What non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to anne costume the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. And Society Essay? One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. Anne Costume? We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the heathcliff, sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and carrie moss matrix, supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30).
In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of pygmalion, communities by anne moss costume, thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of and Society, which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the carrie costume, organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in Makes, increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in carrie moss matrix, the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005).
Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the about Childhood-Onset Disorder, money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only carrie anne moss matrix costume capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on and catherine producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is anne hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to Essay about use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to anne moss costume measure the social return on investment for frames a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to carrie the community.” Since the pygmalion, higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.
While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of moss matrix, Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per on What a Dynamic Leader? pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per anne moss costume pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to and catherine higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Carrie Costume? Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself.
And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the Essay Makes, way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of costume, Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). And Society Essay? To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for carrie Fair Trade certification, ruling that the themes, margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004).
16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of matrix costume, this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products.
These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is freeze in drama particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the carrie anne moss, demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and heathcliff, producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Anne Matrix? Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an heathcliff and catherine attempt to create alternative or at carrie moss costume, least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and Essay Makes a Dynamic, neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.
But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on carrie anne moss matrix how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the Makes Leader?, general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and carrie costume, problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the and mohamad, “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the anne moss matrix costume, conventional market, so a claim held by and mohamad, many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of carrie moss costume, producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is Essay Makes a Dynamic social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the anne moss matrix, way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into People and Society, the quality of the product. Producer and consumer links that make the costume, conditions and lives of themes, producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of carrie, images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of and mohamad, production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and costume, shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to frames in drama think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the anne moss costume, product.
Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and jesus and mohamad, are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is costume increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of Essay, all consumers fall under this category and that the carrie, market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and People Essay, growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on moss costume the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is Essay particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of moss, their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the People, “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5).
Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at carrie matrix, incorporating ethics into pygmalion, trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of carrie anne moss matrix costume, companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and freeze, profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in anne moss matrix, Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for People profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the carrie matrix costume, farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder, Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives.
Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only carrie anne moss matrix costume aim at jesus, increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on carrie anne moss the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the jesus and mohamad, Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works. And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims.
Especially in carrie moss matrix costume, how far producers really are part of the and catherine, “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Carrie Anne Moss Matrix Costume? Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of heathcliff, comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the carrie anne moss matrix costume, produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to Essay on What Makes the theories about consumer/producer links. Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for carrie costume example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in pygmalion themes, my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). Matrix Costume? This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations.
23. On the consumer side there is on What Makes another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on carrie anne the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”. A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and Essay on What Leader?, the environment”. Carrie Moss Costume? 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of Essay, cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of carrie anne matrix, ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Essay? Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of carrie anne, consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. Freeze In Drama? There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in carrie moss matrix costume, Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to Essay make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market.
25. 4. Carrie Moss Matrix Costume? 2. Jesus? 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. Carrie Anne Moss? And since that is limited somewhat, the jesus, other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by costume, raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the about Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder, production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. Carrie Anne Moss Matrix? But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005).
There is an extremely controversial discussion about the and catherine, recent development of carrie, Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to Essay Makes the debate between the two visions of anne matrix costume, Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and Essay, commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of carrie moss matrix costume, Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the heathcliff, automatic market mechanisms of carrie matrix costume, Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the in drama, producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market.
Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is carrie anne costume however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the Childhood-Onset Disorder, dependency of Fair Trade producers the anne matrix costume, labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and Makes, certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of carrie anne, Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to freeze increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10).
This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by costume, many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the themes, strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of carrie anne moss, their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to pygmalion themes these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the matrix, strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of pygmalion themes, their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of anne moss, ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fluency, Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is moss matrix costume not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).
Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the and Society Essay, bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of moss matrix costume, all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of Essay a Dynamic Leader?, almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of moss matrix, mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to People Essay trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. Carrie Moss Costume? (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the in drama, FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005).
The growth of carrie moss, Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of and Society, scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to carrie moss costume influence competing corporations to Childhood-Onset Disorder change their trading practices outside of moss matrix, Fair Trade. Essay? This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. Carrie Costume? The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out frames above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into carrie moss costume, account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an pygmalion important role in matrix costume, this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to and mohamad justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004).
Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). Moss Costume? This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the jesus and mohamad, market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and carrie moss, environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of and catherine, this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of anne matrix costume, high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in jesus, 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of anne matrix costume, Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to themes take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to anne costume its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for heathcliff all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and carrie anne moss, unlabelled coffee. Themes? This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of matrix, Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).
This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). Frames In Drama? It is however also important to carrie take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of pygmalion themes, standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for anne matrix costume its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the and Society Essay, C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of costume, a guaranteeing a minimum price; the about Fluency Disorder, infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the moss matrix, standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in and catherine, Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the carrie anne moss matrix, high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the jesus and mohamad, non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only moss costume partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme.
Besides these trends to Essay about Fluency undermine the carrie anne moss matrix costume, Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29. There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the Essay on What, way power relations in carrie anne moss matrix, the production process change and in drama, a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. Matrix? While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and in drama, the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of matrix, those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). Freeze In Drama? It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the anne moss matrix costume, state in market regulations.
Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the jesus, further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the carrie anne, East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and heathcliff and catherine, the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of carrie moss matrix, immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). People And Society Essay? And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of carrie matrix, revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of and mohamad, both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by moss matrix, the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. And Catherine? In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of carrie anne, market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and jesus, naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change.
Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. Matrix? And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into themes, a discourse of anne moss, entitlements and jesus, rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for costume Fair Trade to economically influence the Disorder, conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into matrix costume, the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on freeze the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to anne moss costume their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. Essay On What Leader?? This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and moss matrix costume, certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors.
Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and Essay about Disorder, public opinions on moss matrix trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and People and Society, education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of carrie anne moss costume, international trade is and Society politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to anne costume function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of freeze frames, subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in anne moss matrix costume, the value chain are added in the Global North. In the freeze frames in drama, European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of carrie moss costume, cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).
The unbelievably high levels of and Society Essay, agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and carrie moss costume, the U.S. Essay Makes A Dynamic Leader?? furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of matrix costume, rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and freeze, environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for carrie moss matrix costume governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and freeze in drama, its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the carrie matrix, deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in Essay on What, the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in carrie costume, supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the heathcliff, WTO meeting in anne moss matrix, Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and jesus, many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the carrie moss matrix costume, WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the and catherine, international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and moss matrix, promotes the expansion of Essay Makes a Dynamic Leader?, Fair Trade principles of regulating and carrie anne costume, managing the heathcliff and catherine, global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of costume, companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in Essay on What Makes a Dynamic, any way favourable to anne costume the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). Heathcliff? The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level.
Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and carrie matrix, solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of freeze frames in drama, Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by carrie anne, the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to heathcliff and catherine lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from anne moss matrix costume free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market?
The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to People and Society both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. Anne Costume? In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to jesus and mohamad argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the anne costume, emergence of and catherine, Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in anne, form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and jesus and mohamad, society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and carrie anne costume, generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of themes, civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for costume financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the freeze in drama, dismantling of carrie matrix, labour regulations that restrict exploitation.
37 It is important to freeze in drama note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to carrie continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is pygmalion where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the carrie anne moss costume, protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to jesus employ Polanyi to carrie moss argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is freeze frames in drama concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. Moss Costume? While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and People, improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing.
38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of carrie costume, competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and themes, environmental cost of production. This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is costume possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by heathcliff and catherine, internalizing both the real social and anne moss matrix costume, environmental cost of production into and Society, the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Anne Costume? Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market.
Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the People Essay, product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the anne moss matrix costume, market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and jesus and mohamad, nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to carrie anne moss matrix function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and Essay about Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder, work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of moss, information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the and catherine, social and carrie moss, environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of People Essay, competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an anne moss matrix costume interesting type of “contract economy” into Disorder, the market, in moss matrix, which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to on What Makes prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is carrie moss not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is pygmalion themes about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in carrie anne costume, Jaffe et al, 2004: 192).
Fair Trade, as an jesus and mohamad attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to carrie anne moss be present and future tendencies and and catherine, trajectories of the carrie moss matrix, Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. Pygmalion? As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and anne moss matrix costume, contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to Childhood-Onset this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the anne matrix, impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it.
Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in Makes Leader?, terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of carrie matrix, unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is heathcliff a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is moss fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on heathcliff the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the carrie anne moss costume, movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in Essay about Disorder, this study, bring about multiple and carrie anne moss matrix, partly contradictory effects on different levels. Pygmalion Themes? Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the anne costume, political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and freeze, change what they try to anne costume explain, the Fair Trade movement.
Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and in drama, interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in moss matrix costume, the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the and catherine, one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in carrie anne moss matrix costume, transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the frames in drama, mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to carrie matrix costume misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. On What Makes? 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and carrie moss costume, Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher.
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2006. Webpage under: http://www.comerciojusto.com.mx (Mai, 2006). Cowe, Roger and Simon Williams. 2000. Who are the Ethical Consumers. Manchester: Cooperative Bank and MORI, downloadable from http://www.co-operativebank.co.uk (Mai 2006). Dankers, Cora. 2003. Themes? Environmental and Social Standards, Certification and Labelling for Cash Crops.
Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Doherty, Bob and Sophi Tranchell. 2005. “New Thinking in International Trade? A Case Study of The Day Chocolate Company“ Sustainable Development 13: 166176. Evans, Peter. 2005. “Counter-hegemonic Globalization: Transnational Social Movements in the Contemporary Global Political Economy,” in Handbook of Political Sociology, T. Janoski et al. (eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. FINE. 2001. “Fair Trade Definition and Principles. As agreed by FINE in anne moss matrix costume, December 2001”, http://www.eftafairtrade.org/pdf/Fair-TDAP.pdf (April 2006). -. 2005a. Themes? “Fair Trade Rules! Position of the global Fair Trade movement towards the 6th WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong” October 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai 2006).
-. 2005b. “Last minute compromise offers little for the world's poor. Costume? WTO Fair Trade Statement after Hong Kong” December 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai, 2006). FLO. 2005a. “Delivering Opportunities” annual report 2004-2005 of the Fair Trade Labelling Organizations Interntaional. Bonn, Germany: FLO, http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/news/FLO_AR_2004_05.pdf (April 2006). -. 2006. Webpage of the Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International, http://www.fairtrade.net (April 2006). Gereffi, Gary, Ronie Garcia-Johnson and Erika Sasser. People Essay? 2001. “The NGO-Industrial Complex” Foreign Policy 125: 56-65. Gibbon. Peter.
2005. The Commodity Question: New Thinking on anne costume Old Problems. Pygmalion? Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper. New York: United Nations Development Program. Goodman, D. and M. Goodman. 2001. “Sustaining Foods: Organic Consumption and the Socio-Ecological Imaginary.” in Exploring Sustainable Consumption: Environmental Policy and carrie anne moss costume, the Social Sciences, M. Cohen and Essay about Fluency, J. Murphy, eds. Oxford: Elsevier Science: 97119. Gore, Charles.
2000. “The Rise and Fall of the Washington Consensus as a Paradigm for Developing Countries”, in World Development 28 (5): 789-804. Hamann, Andreas. 2004. Schwarzbuch Lidl. Billig auf Kosten der Beschäftigten. Veröffentlichung von Ver.di. Hart, Gillian. Anne Moss Costume? 2001. “Development Critiques in the 1990s: culs de sac and promising paths,” Progress in Human Geography 24 (4): 649-658. -. 2002. Disabling Globalization: Places of Power in Post-Apartheid South Africa.
Berkeley: University of California Press. -. 2004. People? “Geography and development: critical ethnographies” Progress in Human Geography 28 (1): 91100. Howley, Kerry. 2006. “Absolution in Your Cup: The real meaning of Fair Trade coffee” Reasononline, March 2006, http://www.reason.com/0603/fe.kh.absolution.shtml (April 2006). Human Development Report. 2005. International Cooperation at a crossroads: Aid, trade and security in an unequal world.
New York: United Nations Development Program. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005 (April 2006). Jaffee, Daniel, Jack R. Anne Moss Matrix? Kloppenburg, Jr., Mario B. Monroy. 2004. Bringing the ‘‘Moral Charge’’ Home: Fair Trade within the pygmalion themes, North and within the South, in Rural Sociology 69 (2): 169196. Jones, Lucy. 2004. “How fair trade hit the mainstream” BBC News, 2 March, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3522059.stm (April 2006). Keane, John. 2003. Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Krier, Jean-Marie. 2005. Fair Trade in Europe: Facts and Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries. Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. 2002. No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. 2003.
Fifty Years of Fair Trade. Carrie Anne Costume? A brief history of the themes, FAIR TRADE movement. Lang, Tim. 2003. “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568. Levi, Margaret and April Linton. Matrix Costume? 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at about, a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432. Lewis, Jessa M. Moss Matrix Costume? 2005.
Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a. Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. Heathcliff And Catherine? 2005b. Anne Moss Matrix? “Has the medium (roast) become the and mohamad, message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511. Lyon, Sarah.
2002. Moss Matrix? “Evaluation of the Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of a Dynamic, Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272.
Mayoux, Linda. Anne Matrix? 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip. 2004. Development and Childhood-Onset, Social Change: a global perspective. 3 rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Moss Matrix? Ernesto. 2002. “Fair Trade Networks in People and Society Essay, Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen. 2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46.
Milford,, Anna. 2004. Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff.
2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in anne matrix costume, Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy. 2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Heathcliff? Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and costume, opportunities for progressive social change in People Essay, the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad.
2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. Carrie Moss? 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé. 2005. “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. 2005. Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. Essay Fluency Disorder? London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor.
2004. “Lessons from the carrie moss costume, world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. Jesus? 2005. Carrie Anne Matrix Costume? “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl. Heathcliff And Catherine? 1944.
The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of anne moss matrix costume, Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. Pygmalion? 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and David Craig. 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert. Carrie Anne Matrix Costume? 2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and and catherine, Schuster.
Ransom, David. 2005. “Fair trade for anne moss sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. Jesus? 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2).
-. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and carrie moss matrix costume, Peter L. Taylor. 2004. “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Barrett and Julio A. Berdegué. 2003. Heathcliff? “The rise of supermarkets in moss matrix, Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and freeze in drama, Paul Snedker.
2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine. Carrie Moss Matrix? 2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. Essay Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder? “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005.
Impacts of carrie anne moss costume, Fair Trade. London School of Economics. Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006).
Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma. 2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37.
Shreck, Aimee. 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and U.S. Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198.
Starbucks. 2006a. Beyond the cup. Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. 2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in Essay Makes a Dynamic Leader?, Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at costume, the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000.
Tallontire, Anne. 2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in Essay on What Leader?, trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group.
Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. Carrie Matrix? “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by and catherine, the Community and anne, Resource Development Program. Makes Leader?? New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of carrie anne matrix costume, Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. 2003.
Food, Inc. Childhood-Onset? Corporate concentration from carrie anne costume farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in Essay on What Makes a Dynamic, D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.
Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by moss, the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for Essay Childhood-Onset Fluency themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the carrie anne matrix, Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA).
The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on pygmalion themes strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the moss matrix costume, Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and themes, monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on carrie anne costume those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and pygmalion themes, since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for moss costume Fair Trade bananas for jesus example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and costume, foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons.
Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to on What a Dynamic 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per anne moss matrix costume box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the heathcliff and catherine, world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on anne moss the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Essay Makes Leader?, Fair Trade market.
In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and anne matrix costume, the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of Essay, these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at moss matrix, other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the and mohamad, same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in costume, Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the Essay Childhood-Onset Disorder, most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in anne moss, Holland for frames example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. Matrix Costume? They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported.
Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on heathcliff export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of carrie anne moss costume, a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about Essay Makes a Dynamic Leader?, 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. Carrie Moss Matrix? If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. People And Society? suggests “millions of anne moss costume, U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over on What Makes a Dynamic Leader?, $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006).
18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for moss example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the on What Makes, importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to anne moss date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of heathcliff, its responsible reputation, at some time in anne matrix, the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and and mohamad, a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once.
Roughly one in carrie anne moss, six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at heathcliff, social responsibility in moss costume, their choices jumped from 36 percent in and catherine, 1999 to carrie moss matrix 62 percent in 2001 in and catherine, Europe. 21 “The approach to carrie anne moss costume Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the themes, relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of anne moss, understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Essay about Disorder, Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers.
These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of anne matrix, commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). On What A Dynamic? Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Matrix? Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of pygmalion themes, quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the carrie anne matrix, market must fall by People and Society Essay, more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the carrie anne matrix, premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Essay, Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000)
29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. Carrie Anne Moss Matrix Costume? A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for freeze in drama compliance with the standards are in moss matrix costume, the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the jesus, late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the carrie anne moss costume, prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for pygmalion less than one-third of developed country imports but for anne matrix costume two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127)
33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the freeze frames, WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by matrix, a country is motivated by People, a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).
35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the carrie anne, first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and themes, land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the anne moss matrix, social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is on What Makes Leader? trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in carrie costume, Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and jesus and mohamad, invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of carrie matrix costume, case studies that vividly illustrate this situation.
38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into anne moss matrix costume, two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. Heathcliff And Catherine? ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and moss, not by heathcliff, relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done.
We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).
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How to write the carrie matrix costume, perfect SAP CV: Top 10 tips and SAP CV sample template. Writing an effective SAP CV is an essential foundation for building a successful SAP career. When being considered for a new SAP employment opportunity your curriculum vitae is normally the first thing an employer uses to jesus and mohamad, decide if you are suitable for anne costume, the SAP position on People offer, so it is costume no surprise that the candidates who write the best SAP CVs are those who are invited for themes, interviews and who ultimately get hired. Writing a great SAP CV is the anne costume, first step in the race for Essay Leader?, an SAP job; those with a poor CV will rarely even make it past the first hurdle. With the SAP market becoming saturated and competition increasing, having an SAP resume that stands out is now more important than ever. When writing anything, the most important thing to keep in moss mind is the audience you are writing for. With an SAP resume, the chances are high that the person who reads your CV at the start of most recruitment processes will be an People and Society Essay, SAP recruiter. As an SAP recruitment agent with over 10 years’ experience, who has personally placed over 700 SAP Consultants in carrie matrix SAP roles, I’d estimate that I have probably read over 100,000 SAP CVs in my time, so I have a pretty good idea of Essay, what makes a top SAP CV. I’m going to offer an moss matrix, honest insider’s perspective into how most SAP recruiters actually read your SAP CV…let’s consider that on a busy day an SAP recruiter might have to recruit for themes, three SAP vacancies, and may receive up to 50 applications for each position. Will they read 150 CVs word for carrie matrix, word, end to end? Of course not.
The honest reality is that most recruiters (myself included) probably spend 30 seconds skim reading each CV and perhaps another 30 seconds crudely using the CTRL-F feature to search the CV for some other keywords. Childhood-Onset Fluency? Bearing this in mind, along with other SAP recruiter insiders’ perspectives, I’m going to moss matrix, provide my advice on how to write the perfect SAP CV. Below are my top 10 tips for a successful SAP CV and an SAP CV example / SAP CV sample template: 1 – Optimise your SAP CV so that it can be quickly and clearly digested when skim-read. It is very likely that the and catherine, first round of screening (often by an SAP recruiter) will involve someone quickly glancing over your CV. Therefore the carrie moss matrix costume, best tip I can give you when writing your SAP CV is to make sure that it is optimised to themes, be read in this way. To do this you need to ensure that the key information in carrie anne matrix your SAP CV stands out. In my opinion the and mohamad, thing that should stand out the most in your SAP CV is your job title. At the very beginning of anne moss matrix, your CV, your job title should be clearly and boldly mentioned e.g. SAP HANA Consultant, so that it obvious at a glance what you do; it should leap off the page.
Your job title should then be mentioned as a clear and Essay Makes Leader?, bold heading at the top of every job position / SAP project description that you mention throughout your CV. By doing this simple thing, the reader will be able to quickly and clearly understand what you do, where you have done it, and how many projects you have done it on. You’d be surprised at carrie moss costume how many SAP consultants there are who don’t do this in their CVs. Themes? This same principle should also be applied to other key information from your CV. Underlining, bullet points, bold text, coloured text and header text can all be used to anne moss matrix costume, emphasise key information within your CV. 2 – Make the in drama, first impression count.
The first impression is always the most important one. Costume? Therefore, the first page on your CV is the most important page. People? It should be the page that you spend the most time perfecting. I have read many SAP CVs where the first page has been so poor and given off such bad signals that I have rejected the candidate without even making it to the second page! The first page should contain a summarised version of carrie anne, all key information that you are trying to get across to the reader; it should be perfectly presented and Essay a Dynamic, engage the reader. Think carefully about the opening sentence, is that really the most important thing you want to say to carrie moss, a potential employer? Because it should be! Think of the first page of your CV as the shop window, people are much more likely to come into your shop and Fluency Disorder, buy if they like the look of what you have displayed in your window.
3 – Ensure your SAP CV has the carrie anne moss matrix, right structure and order. A logical and on What Makes Leader?, effective structure is essential for writing a good SAP CV. Whilst people have different opinions and personal preferences, in my opinion an SAP CV should be set out carrie matrix costume with the and catherine, following sections in anne moss matrix the following order: Document Title: Curriculum Vitae, CV, Resume, Profile etc. About? are all fine (this is down to regional and personal preference). Basic details: Full Name, job title, nationality (plus details of carrie anne costume, any other working permissions held), Date of birth (optional), marital status (optional), address, photo (optional), contact number, email address, languages spoken (and proficiency).
Profile Summary: This should be a concise section that briefly tells the reader who you are and what you do. It should mention information such as your job title / preferred position and give an overview of your key SAP skills. For an SAP CV, it is good to mention things like the SAP modules / SAP submodules that you specialise in, for example: “SAP CO Consultant specialised in SAP CO-PC (Product Costing)”. You should also mention details such as the number of full end-to-end SAP implementation lifecycles you have been involved in and how many SAP roll out projects you have participated in etc. to give the reader an jesus and mohamad, instant indication of your level of experience. You should talk about personal strengths and unique selling points, and a summary of your key results and achievements. This is the carrie moss costume, first opportunity to differentiate yourself and freeze frames, inject a personal touch to your CV. Keep it short and carrie, sharp, almost like a bullet point list of your profile highlights. Skills Summary: This could be a table or a bullet-pointed list of your key skills including details of all SAP modules and sub-modules that you have, SAP configuration (customising) experience in: SAP FI-GL, SAP FI-AP, SAP FI-AR, SAP CO-PA, SAP CO-PC for example, together with an indication of your level of experience or years of Fluency, experience in each area. It should also include details of moss costume, other useful SAP-related experience that you may have e.g. In Drama? LSWM, IDoc etc. and details related to project management or SAP Implementation methodology experience e.g. Carrie Moss Matrix? Prince 2, Agile, ASAP, SAP Solution Manager.
It is also good to indicate your relevant certifications here. Work Experience: You should always list your work experience in chronological order (most recent SAP project first). Each work experience segment should clearly display the basic key details: Start Date, End Date, Job title, Client Name, Brief Project Description, Key Activities and themes, Results achieved. Education / Training Courses / Certifications: For a senior SAP Consultant, this section just needs to be brief and contain a list of the carrie anne moss matrix costume, basic key details. In addition to mentioning your SAP certifications here, it is heathcliff and catherine also good to mention them within the skills summary section on the first page too. For a junior consultant / intern looking to anne moss matrix, enhance their SAP career, this section is more important and more detail can be given to describe experiences within your education / training which are relevant to your intended SAP career. References: Again this is pygmalion themes a matter of opinion, but personally I think that including two short written references in your SAP CV can certainly add something; a 3-4 line reference quotation, followed by the name, job title and anne, company of the referee (only do so with prior consent from the referee).
Having a good written reference already included in your CV can help you stand out, especially if it is from someone senior at a large, well-known SAP client. I wouldn’t include their contact details in the CV however, I recommend holding this back just for those who you want to heathcliff, contact them. Alternatively, you could include a URL / link to your LinkedIn references section here instead. Writing “references available upon request” is really just a waste of carrie moss matrix costume, space in heathcliff and catherine my opinion and it is better not to even have this section if you choose to do that. Interests: Providing details of your personal interests isn’t the most important component of a CV, but it could still contribute to anne moss matrix, the reader’s overall opinion/decision on your CV. A word of warning, what you choose to reveal here could possibly count against you without you ever realising, for heathcliff, example: innocently revealing that you are an active and passionate member of Greenpeace or an carrie moss matrix costume, Animal rights charity may count against you if applying for Makes a Dynamic, a position with a Pharmaceutical or cosmetics company (where animal testing is anne costume involved), as they may deem this as a security risk. Mentioning that you love extensive, extended travel and themes, take five holidays every single year might put off an employer who has a busy SAP project with tight deadlines and now assumes you’ll want to go away for 6 weeks in the summer, right in the middle of a busy project milestone. On the other hand, describing your interests could also work in carrie moss matrix costume your favour: talking about SAP-related interests may add to and mohamad, your CV: being an active member of an SAP user group, writing SAP blogs, articles or books for example. Mentioning personal interests that the person who is costume hiring also happens to share by coincidence might also count in and catherine your favour. Revealing a rare or interesting hobby may add to moss matrix, the perception of your personality that comes across from the CV, not too rare or interesting though… mentioning taxidermy might creep some people out. 4 – Make sure you mention the SAP Key Words throughout the CV.
As mentioned above, most SAP recruiters will only Essay skim-read your CV and quickly search it for keywords. You therefore need to think carefully about which keywords are most important in relation to the SAP jobs you are applying for moss, and ensure that as well as making them stand out, you also mention these keywords as often as possible. If I am searching for an SAP SuccessFactors Learning Management System specialist for jesus and mohamad, example, I would normally check the document for some specific keywords using the carrie moss matrix costume, Ctrl-F search function. I would check for “SuccessFactors” and “Learning Management System” and see how many times each of jesus, these was mentioned. The important thing to anne moss costume, note here is to also mention synonyms of these keywords in your CV as much as possible too, for example SuccessFactors is Essay Makes Leader? also referred to as SFSF (in its abbreviated form), as is Learning Management System to anne moss matrix, LMS. It is therefore important to have these variations well-represented in your CV. A lazy SAP recruiter, or perhaps one not familiar with the variations of names/abbreviations etc., could even dismiss your CV, simply because they don’t find the keywords they think they should be looking for! i.e. Essay About Fluency? you might have LMS mentioned 100 times in your CV, but you haven’t mentioned “Learning Management System” once, a recruiter who doesn’t think/know to check for this could accidentally rule you out, so it is best to carrie moss, ensure all critical keywords, as well as possible variations of these, are well-represented in your CV. It is similar to and mohamad, SEO (search engine optimisation), but for moss, your CV and the lazy readers, rather than Google. 5 – Be prepared to adjust your CV slightly for each specific SAP vacancy.
If your SAP recruitment agent asks you to and Society Essay, adjust or tweak your CV for a particular position, be open to this. Carrie Moss Costume? You don’t have to re-write the entire CV, but simply making a few changes to heathcliff and catherine, tailor the CV for anne matrix, the specific position you are applying for could make a huge difference. Never lie or exaggerate on your CV, what I am referring to here is more about emphasising certain specific experiences that are particularly relevant for the SAP job you are applying for at Fluency Disorder the time. 6 – Make sure your CV is the carrie matrix, right length. There is no fixed rule about the correct length for a CV as the on What Makes, length will depend on many factors. Carrie Anne? In general your CV should be as short and to-the-point as possible, whilst being long enough to jesus, contain all of the important information a potential employer may want to know. You’ll read a lot of generic articles telling you that your CV should only matrix be 1-2 pages long, but in my opinion this does not apply to an SAP CV, an SAP CV is different as you need to go into more technical detail and clearly outline the exact SAP modules, SAP submodule, SAP-related tools, methodologies etc. that you have experience with. You also need to go into freeze frames in drama enough detail about the nature of the SAP projects you have been involved in and your specific responsibilities within these projects. Keep in mind that your SAP profile should be an overview and carrie moss, not a lengthy memoir.
If you are someone who can’t control the volume of text when writing in pygmalion themes prose, then perhaps consider using concise bullet-pointed text wherever possible, to anne moss costume, help you keep control of the overall length. An SAP CV is there to form the basis for guiding an interview conversation and not there to replace it. 7-Make sure your CV has a professional look. The content is of course the and mohamad, most important factor when writing an SAP resume, however you’d be surprised at how many SAP CVs I’ve seen with decent content which have been ruined by the aesthetic presentation. Choose a sensible and professional font. Its fine to go with something slightly different, but Times New Roman is certainly overused. Fonts such as Arial, Calibri, Candara, Georgia, Tahoma, Trebuchet MS or Verdana would be fine. I would avoid fonts like Berlin Sans FB, Comic Sans, Courier new and anne matrix, Vijaya. In my opinion a fairly conservative colour scheme is best, classic black text is tried and tested, so I’m always bewildered when SAP Consultants send me rainbow coloured CVs. If you want to emphasise or differentiate certain areas or headers using different colour text, using one or two additional colours is more than enough.
Personally, I prefer conservative options such as blue or grey for Essay on What a Dynamic Leader?, these parts, but it is anne costume a matter of Leader?, personal taste. Subtly and sparingly using some brighter coloured text for headers/titles can also work, especially if you’re trying to integrate the main colour from your company logo/branding into the CV. 8- Make sure your CV is saved in the right format! I would recommend providing your CV to SAP recruiters in MS Word (.doc or .docx) format where possible, making sure the anne, file isn’t password protected or locked for editing. As an alternative you could provide your CV as a PDF file, however PDFs cannot be edited unless the recruiter has the Adobe Acrobat MS Word converter (which many don’t).
Even in cases where PDF is converted to MS Word, it is often troublesome to edit or reformat. Freeze? You might be thinking to yourself that you’d prefer for your CV not to be changed by anyone else so this is a good thing, but in most cases this will do you more harm than good: An SAP recruiter should never change the real content of your CV without asking your permission, and any decent recruiter would never do this. However, a recruiter may want to make some superficial changes to carrie moss, your CV to improve the presentation for example and in drama, having a non-editable file prevents this. Anne? The recruiter might need to convert CVs into a certain format, or insert a client-specific coversheet on the front page of the CV (which is a mandatory requirement for some client’s recruitment processes). About? The recruiter may be required by the client to carrie anne moss costume, submit CVs without logos only, or they may wish to remove your direct contact details from the freeze frames in drama, CV before submitting it to a client. Preventing the recruiter from anne matrix, having the CV the way they need it will ultimately slow down your application and may even mean you miss out on an opportunity because of it. For those who are limited to PDF files, I would suggest removing any logo and contact details from your CV when sending it to and catherine, a recruiter (ensure you provide your contact details within the anne, email you send them though, so they can still reach you!). Occasionally I receive SAP CVs in Powerpoint or other even stranger CV file formats. I don’t understand why people do this, and certainly wouldn’t recommend doing so!
9- Always have an updated SAP CV ready – Speed is key! Writing the perfect SAP CV is of no use if you don’t have it with you when it is needed. Make sure you have access to a copy of your CV at all times, you never know where or when you might need it. Similarly, you need to make sure that you constantly keep it updated. Being away on heathcliff holiday and anne moss, only having a copy of your CV on your home desktop could cause you to People and Society Essay, miss out on the SAP career opportunity of a lifetime, or having to carrie matrix, delay your application by 24 hours while you update your CV may also cause you to miss out.
10- Get someone else to check over your CV! Your Curriculum Vitae is a reflection of you, it should be logically ordered, consistent, well presented and themes, without errors. Nothing would put me off more than an ABAP developer who’s CV was full of typos! No matter how perfect you think your SAP CV is, always get a fresh pair of eyes to look over anne moss costume, it. Have it proofread for spelling errors and grammar by a fellow SAP colleague, a professional proof-reader or perhaps your favourite SAP recruiter.
So now you’ve read my top ten tips, giving my best, most honest advice, you’re ready to write the perfect SAP CV. I wish you the themes, best of luck with writing it and hope to place you in carrie matrix costume your next SAP position myself when your new CV is ready.