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Communication Tools for of confucius sparknotes, Understanding Cultural Differences. Montaigne said, The most universal quality is diversity.[1] Given that diversity abounds, the project of understanding each other is both daunting and important. It is a journey never finished, because the process and the endpoints change constantly. The journey is bound up with communication and conflict, since misunderstandings and miscommunication can cause and escalate conflict. Effective communication is often the key to making progress in a conflict.

Progress through conflict is possible, and the route is wood pestal, twofold. First, self-knowledge and self-awareness are needed. Without these, our seemingly normal approaches to analects of confucius meaning-making and communication will never be clear enough that we can see them for what they are: a set of Racial Indifference in America lenses that shape what we see, hear, say, understand, and interpret. Sparknotes! Second, cultural fluency is needed, meaning familiarity with culture and the ability to act on that familiarity.[2] Cultural fluency means understanding what culture is, how it works, and the ways culture and communication are intertwined with conflicts. This may sound simple enough, but it actually requires significant, continuous effort.

As Edward T. Hall writes in the introduction to his book, The Dance of Life ,[3] for us to understand each other may mean, reorganizing [our] thinking. and wood pestal few people are willing to risk such a radical move. Communication theorists, anthropologists, and others have given us tools to develop awareness of our own lenses, and to facilitate the reorganization of thinking necessary to truly understand others whose starting points may differ from analects of confucius sparknotes our own. Two of these tools are explored here. Communication Tools for Understanding Culture. The Woodpile! Additional insights into communication tools for understanding cultural differences are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants.

The tools we will examine here relate to communication and ways of seeing the self in relation to others. They are: High-context and low-context communication, and of confucius Individualist and communitarian conceptions of self and other. Since all of these tools are used in tgi friday the service of understanding culture, a working definition of culture is useful. Donal Carbaugh defines culture as a system of expressive practices fraught with feelings, a system of symbols, premises, rules, forms, and the domains and dimensions of analects of confucius mutual meanings associated with these.[4] He also suggests culture is a learned set of shared interpretations about and the 1968 beliefs, values, and norms, which affect the behaviors of a relatively large group of people.[5] In each of these definitions, culture is linked to communication and a wide range of human experience including feelings, identity, and meaning-making. Communication is the analects of confucius vehicle by which meanings are conveyed, identity is composed and Racial Indifference Essays reinforced, and feelings are expressed. As we communicate using different cultural habits and meaning systems, both conflict and harmony are possible outcomes of any interaction.

There is no comprehensive way to sparknotes understand culture and its relationships to communication and conflict. The two tools outlined here give windows into wood pestal how different groups of people make sense of their worlds. They are neither reliable guides to every member of a particular group nor are they fixed in nature, since culture is constantly evolving and changing as people within groups and the contexts around them change. These two sets of tools are the most frequently used classifications of sparknotes cultures used by anthropologists and Gallaudet College and the 1968 Washington Essay communication scholars. Of Confucius! We begin with one of the most familiar sets of tools: high-context and low-context communication. High-context and wood pestal Low-context Communication refers to the degree to which speakers rely on factors other than explicit speech to convey their messages. Analects Of Confucius! This tool, developed by Edward T. Hall,[6] suggests that communication varies according to its degree of field dependence, and that it can be classified into two general categories -- high-context and low-context. Field dependence refers to the degree to of happiness movie which things outside the communication itself affect the meaning. For example, a request for a child to shut the door relies comparatively little on context, while a comment containing meaning other than what is on analects sparknotes the surface relies largely on context for its meaning to be received. A high-context message of disagreement might be telegraphed to a spouse or a co-worker by the words chosen or the way they are spoken, even if no disagreement is explicitly voiced. Hall says that every human being is robert frost, confronted by far more sensory stimuli than can possibly be attended to.

Cultures help by of confucius, screening messages, shaping perceptions and interpretations according to a series of selective filters. In high-context settings, the screens are designed to let in implied meanings arising from the physical setting, relational cues, or shared understandings. In low-context settings, the screens direct attention more to the literal meanings of pursuit movie words and less to the context surrounding the words. All of us engage in both high-context and low-context communication. There are times we say what we mean, and analects mean what we say, leaving little to wood pestal be read in to the explicit message. This is low-context communication. Analects Sparknotes! At other times, we may infer, imply, insinuate, or deliver with nonverbal cues messages that we want to have conveyed but do not speak. This is high-context communication.

Most of the uk time, we are somewhere nearer the middle of the continuum, relying to analects of confucius sparknotes some extent on context, but also on the literal meaning of words. To understand this distinction between high-context and low-context communication, ask yourself these questions: Do I tend to let my words speak for themselves, or prefer to the woodpile robert frost be less direct, relying on of confucius sparknotes what is implied by my communication? (low-context communication) Do I prefer indirect messages from Indifference in America others, and am I attuned to a whole range of analects of confucius sparknotes verbal and nonverbal cues to in America Essays help me understand the meaning of what is said? (high-context communication) As will quickly become clear, most people can and do function at both ends of the high-context, low-context continuum. Sparknotes! There are times when direct, clear communication is the most game richard connell, most appropriate, and times when it is preferable to communicate in sparknotes layers of meaning to save face, spare feelings, or allow for diffuse interpretations. Uk! Most people rely on a whole range of verbal and nonverbal cues to analects of confucius sparknotes understand the meaning of what is wood pestal, said. Even in analects sparknotes the most direct, low-context setting, meanings will be conveyed that are not explicitly spoken. The novelist Amy Tan describes the different starting points of English and Chinese this way: I try to explain to my English-speaking friends that Chinese language is more strategic in manner, whereas English tends to the most connell be more direct; an American business executive may say, 'Let's make a deal,' and analects the Chinese manager may reply, 'Is your son interested in learning about your widget business?' Each to Racial Indifference Essays his or her own purpose, each with his or her own linguistic path.[7] As people communicate, they move along a continuum between high context and low context. Depending on the kind of relationship, the situation, and the purpose of communication, they may be more or less explicit and direct. In close relationships, communication short-hand is often used, which makes communication opaque to outsiders but perfectly clear to the parties. With strangers, the same people may choose low-context communication. Low- and analects of confucius high-context communication refers not only to individual communication strategies, but may be used to understand cultural groups. Generally, Western cultures tend to gravitate toward low-context starting points, while Eastern and Southern cultures tend to use high-context communication.

Within these huge categories, there are important differences and many variations. Where high-context communication tends to Gallaudet 1968 be featured, it is useful to pay specific attention to nonverbal cues and the behavior of others who may know more of the analects unstated rules governing the communication. Where low-context communication is the norm, directness is likely to be expected in movie return. It is less important to classify any communication as high or low context than it is to understand whether nonverbal or verbal cues are the most prominent. Without this understanding, those who tend to use high-context starting points may be looking for shades of meaning that are not present, and those who prefer low-context communication may miss important nuances of meaning. The choice of high-context and low-context as labels has led to unfortunate misunderstandings, since there is an implied ranking in the adjectives. In fact, neither is better or worse than the other. Analects! They are simply different. Each has possible pitfalls for cross-cultural communicators. Generally, low-context communicators interacting with high-context communicators should be mindful that. nonverbal messages and gestures may be as important as what is said; status and Racial in America Essays identity may be communicated nonverbally and require appropriate acknowledgement; face-saving and tact may be important, and analects sparknotes need to be balanced with the desire to communicate fully and Racial Indifference in America Essays frankly; building a good relationship can contribute to effectiveness over time; and indirect routes and creative thinking are important alternatives to problem-solving when blocks are encountered. High-context communicators interacting with low-context communicators should be mindful that. things can be taken at analects of confucius face value rather than as representative of layers of meaning; roles and functions may be decoupled from status and identity; efficiency and effectiveness may be served by a sustained focus on tasks; direct questions and observations are not necessarily meant to Gallaudet and the 1968 Washington Riots Essay offend, but to clarify and advance shared goals; and indirect cues may not be enough to get the other's attention.[8] As communicators factor awareness of high-context and low-context communication into of confucius sparknotes their relations, conflict may be lessened and even prevented.

Individualism and Communitarianism is the second dimension important to conflict and conflict resolution. The Woodpile Robert Frost! In communitarian settings (sometimes called collectivist settings), children are taught that they are part of a circle of relations. This identity as a member of analects sparknotes a group comes first, summed up in the South African idea of ubuntu: I am because we are. In communitarian settings, members are rewarded for allegiance to group norms and values, interdependence, and College 1968 Riots cooperation. Wherever they go, their identity as a member of analects of confucius sparknotes their group goes out in front. Identity is the woodpile robert frost, not isolated from others, but is determined with others according to group needs and analects views. When conflict arises, behavior and responses tend to be jointly chosen. Individualist patterns involve ideas of the self as independent, self-directed, and autonomous. Many Western conflict-resolution approaches presuppose exactly this kind of person: someone able to make proposals, concessions, and maximize gains in College and the 1968 Riots their own self-interest. Sparknotes! Children raised in this milieu are rewarded for initiative, personal achievement, and individual leadership. They may be just as close to pursuit of happiness their families as a child raised in a communitarian setting, but they draw the boundaries differently: in case of a conflict, they may feel more free to choose their individual preference.

Duty, honor, and deference to analects of confucius authority are less prominent for those with individualist starting points than communitarian ones. Dangerous Game Connell! Individual and communitarian identities are two quite different ways of being in the world. They connect at some point, of course, since all groups are made up of individuals and all individuals find themselves in relationship with various groups. But the starting points are different. Analects Sparknotes! To discern the the woodpile frost basic difference, ask yourself which is analects of confucius sparknotes, most in tgi friday prices uk the foreground of your life, the of confucius sparknotes welfare, development, security, prosperity, and well-being of the most connell yourself and others as individuals, or the shared heritage, ecological resources, traditional stories, and group accomplishments of your people? Generally, those who start with individualism as their beginning tend to be most comfortable with independence, personal achievement, and a competitive conflict style. Those who start with a communal orientation are more focused on social connections, service, and a cooperative conflict style.

French anthropologist Raymonde Carroll, who is married to a North American, suggests that North Americans tend to see individual identities as existing outside all networks. This does not mean that social networks do not exist, or that they are unimportant, but that it is notionally possible to see the self apart from these. In the North American view, there is a sense that the self creates its own identity, as in the expression, a self-made person. This view explains why it is analects sparknotes, unnecessary for North Americans to hide things about their past, such as humble origins. It also explains why the alcoholic brother of a president of the United States is seen as having no connection to the president's standing or ability. In a communitarian setting, identity is defined much more by the person's social network, and cannot be so easily separated. Gallaudet College Washington Essay! One way to discern communitarian or individualist starting points is to listen to forms of greeting and address. Thomas Morning Owl, a member of the Confederated Umatilla Tribes in analects of confucius sparknotes Oregon, reports that his response to the question 'Shinnamwa?' (Who are you?) would not be his name, but a description of his father, mother, and tribe, and the place they came from. Racial! Morning Owl reflects that individual identities are subsumed into the collective in his culture: Who preceded you, is who you are.[9] Members of communitarian cultures place less importance than individualists on relationships with outsiders, such as strangers or casual acquaintances. Analects! Boundaries around relationships tend to be less porous in communitarian contexts like Japan, where attention is focused on College 1968 Riots Essay maintaining harmony and cohesion with the sparknotes group.

In the individualist setting of the United States, by contrast, friendly behavior is wood pestal, directed to members of in-groups and strangers alike. This difference can lead to misunderstandings across cultures, since the U.S. Analects Of Confucius! American behavior of friendliness to strangers may be seen as inappropriately familiar by those from communitarian settings, while U.S. Americans may find social networks in communitarian settings very difficult to penetrate. No matter which starting point seems natural, it is important to keep the entire continuum in mind when trying to understand and address conflict. From each vantage point, it is useful to Indifference remember some things: From an sparknotes individualist starting point, achievement involves individual goal-setting and action; I am ultimately accountable to myself and the woodpile frost must make decisions I can live with; while I consult with others about choices, I am autonomous: a discrete circle; and I believe in equality and consider everyone able to make their own personal choices. From a communitarian starting point, maintaining group harmony and cohesion is important, and sparknotes my decisions should not disrupt that; choices are made in consultation with family and authority figures and their input is weighted as heavily, or even more heavily, than mine. I am an overlapping circle amidst other overlapping circles; my decisions reflect on my group and I am accountable to them as a member; and I notice hierarchy and uk accept direction from those of higher status than myself. With these differences in sparknotes mind, it is important for individualists to recognize the web of relations encompassing the communitarian party to wood pestal a conflict, and to act in recognition of those.

Similarly, it is helpful for analects of confucius sparknotes, those from communitarian settings to remember that individualists value autonomy and initiative, and to act in ways that respect these preferences. Combining Starting Points: High-Context/Low-Context and Individualism/Communitarianism. As with any set of starting points, neither of these starting points exists in isolation. High-context communication often corresponds with communitarian settings, just as low-context communication often occurs in individualist settings. This is not always true, but it is worth exploring because it is frequently the case. Where communitarianism is the preferred starting point, individual expression may be less important than group will. Indirect communication that draws heavily on nonverbal cues may be preferable in prices uk such a setting, because it allows for analects of confucius sparknotes, multiple meanings, saves face, leaves room for Indifference in America, group input into decisions, and of confucius sparknotes displays interdependence. In individualist settings, low-context communication may be preferable because it is direct, expresses individual desires and initiatives, displays independence, and clarifies the meaning intended by the speaker. Nobel Peace Laureate Jimmy Carter understood the in America importance of high-context communication with his counterparts from Israel and Egypt in the historic Camp David peace negotiations.

In one example, Carter reports that Prime Minister Begin was about to leave the negotiations after several days, discouraged at analects sparknotes having reached an impasse. Carter met Begin at his accommodations and presented him with pictures of the three heads of state, inscribed with the names of each of uk Begin's grandchildren. Prime Minister Begin repeated the names of his grandchildren out analects of confucius sparknotes loud as he paused to look at the pictures, seeming to reflect on robert the importance of the peace negotiations to the grandchildren's futures. Carter knew instinctively that no direct, low-context appeal would work to bring Prime Minister Begin back to of confucius the negotiating table. Perhaps low-context requests were already tried without success.

Instead, Carter relied on a high-context reference to legacy, future generations, and the relations that Begin cared about. He invoked the communities each leader served by reminding Begin of his grandchildren. Pursuit Of Happiness Movie! Through Carter's masterful, high-context appeal, negotiations resumed and peace was achieved between neighbors who had been in intractable conflict for sparknotes, many years.[10] This example shows the importance of these two interrelated starting points, individualism/communitarianism and low/high context. While there are many exceptions to cultural patterns and all of us use different starting points depending on the context, noticing the intersections of ways of making meaning is often a useful window into conflict dynamics. [1] Montaigne, 1580. Quoted in Tracy Novinger. Intercultural Communication . (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001) [2] This is closely related to the concept of framing. [3] Edward T. Hall, The Dance of Life. The Other Dimension of pursuit Time (New York: Doubleday, 1983), 7. [5] Lustig, Myron and Jolene Koester. 1998.

Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures (3 rd Ed.). Analects Of Confucius! (Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1998), 30. [6] Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture . (New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1971) [7] Tan, Amy. The Language of Discretion, in About Language 3 rd Ed ., E.H.Roberts and G. Turgeon, eds. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), 142. [8] These points are taken from Michelle LeBaron, Bridging Cultural Conflicts: New Approaches for a Changing World (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2003) [9] Quoted in Tracy Novinger, Intercultural Communication (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2001), 31. Wood Pestal! [10] Jimmy Carter, Keeping Faith (New York: Bantam Books, 1982), 392, 399. Use the following to cite this article: LeBaron, Michelle. Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Sparknotes! Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: June 2003 Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site.

You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out wood pestal about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and analects of confucius outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Gallaudet and the 1968 Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to analects sparknotes explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and and the Washington Riots Essay peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks Ė ideas which help people address both tractable and analects of confucius intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict.

Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to the woodpile robert frost these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado. Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources.

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My Friend Essays 5 Lines Essays and Research Papers. I met Laurie Ann way back in high school, and six years on, she is still my best of friends . The first day we met, she walked . up to analects of confucius, me and introduced herself. Wood Pestal? It felt way weird shaking her hand like grownups do and declaring my name to her after the hand shake. Stacie Oliker? Pretty name. she remarked instantly. Analects Of Confucius? This close friendship allowed me to come to know and experience a level of Gallaudet College Washington Essay, self disclosure like no other. With her I was and still am myself.

Our high school friendship has unfolded. Ann Way , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1150 Words | 3 Pages. ________________________________ Period ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed final drafts are due on . _______________________ at the beginning of the period. Analects Sparknotes? Your graded final draft will be placed in your portfolio. Organization of Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. Use one of the ďhooksĒ from the six choices on side 2. Donít forget to let your reader know what your essay will be about (career, family, friends , relationships, house, and vehicle). Racial In America? Paragraph. Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages.

Leah Young Young 1 2/14/13 Essay #2 English 101 My Best Friends Thereís really no great way to . start my story other than with the analects of confucius sparknotes, truth. Gallaudet College 1968 Washington Riots Essay? I was 31 and living in a tiny apartment in one of the worst neighborhoods in Louisville. I was on my second divorce and of confucius sparknotes, third abusive relationship. Between me making excuses for bruises and the women my then husband was seeing while I was working, life for me was a sad one. I woke up one morning and decided I had to leave. I packed.

Dog , English-language films , Friendship 2328 Words | 6 Pages. What are the advantages you get when you are aware of the woodpile, those common mistakes in English? * Feel free to use/construct sentences in English * Can . share the knowledge that you know * Confident to sparknotes, express yourself * Gain rewards 5 . What are the dangerous, different ways to correct your mistakes? * Set time to review your writing to spot common grammar mistakes * Concentrate on your difficulties and discover how to get it right * Read a lot of articles concerning on how to. British Isles , England , English language 612 Words | 4 Pages. ? Friends Essay by of confucius Mitchell Scott Topic: What friendship means to me Friendship is a relationship that is needed in Gallaudet and the 1968 Washington Riots Essay, a society of . ours. With a demanding society where if you have no friends , it can be a tough time for you. Friendship is sparknotes, much more than just hanging around with your mates; it allows living to prices, be much more comfortable. Analects Of Confucius? Friendship is extremely underrated in a society of the woodpile, ours; we rely on our friends to have good times. Sometimes you canít imagine life without those who care for analects of confucius sparknotes, you. Comfort, Texas , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1072 Words | 3 Pages. about the last 5 years spent in secondary school CONTINUOUS WRITING 1) Describe something that you enjoy doing most 2) How teenagers . should spend their time 3) What will you do with your money if you are rich?

4) Write a story beginning with: ďWhen I heard the news, IÖĒ 5 ) Life 1) Describe a scene after a disaster 2) A pleasant dream. 3) Write a story ending with: ďÖhe left and closed the door behind him quietly.Ē 4) Success comes to those who work hard. Do you agree? 5 ) Strength 1)Why. Fiction , Novel , The Last Five Years 802 Words | 7 Pages. internationally, the following policies and standards for Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) program are hereby adopted and promulgated by the Commission . ( 5 -2008).Ē 2. Interview elementary teachers and find out how they formulate their course contents. My interviewee is Teacher Cedrich Batuang, a newly passed Secondary Registered Professional Teacher Major in robert, Mathematics, who is currently teaching at La Union Cultural Institute as a grade school teacher. Curriculum , Education , Educational psychology 1630 Words | 5 Pages.

The conflict in the play All My Sons in embodied by two different sets of values. The older generation represented by of confucius sparknotes Joe and Kate strongly . believed in family values and Pursue of the Essays, American dream at any cost. Analects Of Confucius Sparknotes? In contradiction, Joe and Anne express the younger generation's ethics and ideals clearly shown in the thoughts of the woodpile robert frost, idealism that money is not the most important thing in life. Even though the younger generation's ideals are sometimes thought of as being irrational and in conflict with reality. 2002 albums , All My Sons , Arthur Miller 1110 Words | 3 Pages. MY IDEAL FRIEND I was walking home from analects of confucius school. I was carrying my books and tonnes of homework home. Prices? I walked . with a heavy stride with my head hanging down, unaware of the chatter and of confucius, socialising going on the woodpile robert, around me. Spirits were low and I took my usual route home which usually takes me about analects of confucius sparknotes 20 minutes. ďWhat next? I have no idea what to the most game, do,Ē I told myself. Abruptly, I knocked into something and all my books and papers fell to of confucius sparknotes, the sidewalk.

I lost my footing and went down on tgi friday uk, my knees. 2005 albums , 2008 singles , Debut albums 988 Words | 3 Pages. broadcast their show on, and each show has a different showrunner. One of the most popular television shows in history, Friends , is a great . television show to study the of confucius sparknotes, economic situation of a show, and how the economics of the show have affected the television industry. In this essay I will explore the economic situation of Friends , and how it was a financially successful show. Friends first premiered in Gallaudet College Washington Riots, 1994, using the typical Pilot episode in order to win over their audience. In this episode the six.

Episode , Film , Friends 1902 Words | 5 Pages. ?Jazmyne Turner Lydia Gwyn English 111 N4 February 12th, 2015 Dr. Analects Of Confucius Sparknotes? Crumpler motivated to change my career goal into becoming a biomedical . technologist Dr. Crumpler motivated me to change my career goal into becoming a biomedical technologist. It all started when was reading an article online for a black history story for a program at my church on someone famous from the past. So I decided to do some research about Dr.

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PROCESS Ė PERSUASIVE ESSAY Prompt: Do you think cell phones should be allowed in school? Compose an of confucius, essay to persuade the school . community of pursuit, your opinion. STEP 1: ANALYZE THE PROMPT Role: myself as a student Planning: Audience: students, teachers, parents Format: 5 -paragraph persuasive essay Topic: cell phones in school STEP 2: PLAN THE PAPER Topic: Three reasons why cell phones should be allowed in school: Reasons: 1- students stay connected with family and friends ________________________. Cellular network , Education , Laptop 927 Words | 8 Pages. Professor Neagle English 111 15 September 2010 We All Need Somebody to Lean On: My Ideal Friend According to analects of confucius sparknotes, Sharita . Gadison, ďSome friends come and the woodpile robert, go like a season, others are arranged in our lives for of confucius sparknotes, a reason. ď Many might agree that good friends are hard to in America, come across, so the analects, ones that I consider good friends , I keep them close. Robert Frost? I know without a doubt the qualities that make a good friend . A friend is sparknotes, someone who is dependable. Gallaudet And The Washington Riots? When all else fails, it never harms to be able to have that. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1581 Words | 4 Pages. My Best Friend- A descriptive essay; this was an essay for my eng101 class. this is a very descriptive essay about my husband josh, and what he looks like and means to me.

Hauser 1 Karin Hauser James Cann Eng 101/5709 2/22/05 My best friend , a descriptive essay When . I first met Josh I wasn't overly impressed. I had walked into a Hooters restaurant to dine with friends , and sitting at the table that greeted me was Josh. Sparknotes? I didn't notice his rugged good looks. I didn't pause to gaze down upon tgi friday prices uk his broad shoulders, and thick chest. I hardly noticed the caramel color of his eyes, nor his nicely manicured goatee. What I saw, was a broken tooth. English-language films , Human physical appearance , Teeth 640 Words | 3 Pages. ?Professor Verna Geraldine Dayharsh Essay draft #1 4/17/2013 My . Analects? real friend Nature I grew up in a flourishing metropolis sprawling over a number of tgi friday prices, cement constructions . I never stepped out of sparknotes, this cement forest since I was born.

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My Five Personal Values Values are defined as something that are precious, priceless, meaningful and valued by Essays an individual, a group of . people or an organization. Analects? No matter we are aware of them or not, everyone has his or her fundamental set of of happiness, values which consist of of confucius, many different kinds of values. Everyone is not born with values but these values are built up by those closest to the woodpile, us, by trials, events, and institutions. Analects Sparknotes? Each individualís value system is wood pestal, different from one another because individualís. Innovation , Integrity , Morality 1654 Words | 3 Pages.

First Essay I am interested in becoming a special education teacher because every type of child needs and deserves a proper education. . Unfortunately not all children receive the type of of confucius, education they need. Having worked and volunteered my services to multiple families who have children with different assortments of disabilities. Working with children that required high levels of assistance to perform what would be basic task for other children. Robert? While teaching these children the basic life skills. Education , Gifted education , High school 1808 Words | 5 Pages. Essay On My School Picnic For Class 1. Essay on my school picnic for analects of confucius sparknotes, class 1 Contributed By: Rose Johnson, class 7, Carmel School Kuwait. Rose.

My father . Pursuit Of Happiness Movie? always likes to speak about his childhood, especially when he scolds me. Posted: September 2, 2014 in childrens writing ideas, Essays for Class 1- Class4, Kids essays , Less than 15 sentence essays , Once our school picnic was to a zoo. Completed application form, High School a picnic at seaside essay 9 class Transcript, Essay : Share a. Analects Of Confucius? Sep 25, 2011 - I am writing a profile essay on a. Educational years , Essay , Fifth grade 1239 Words | 4 Pages. My best friend Radar. Descriptive essay about my horse. _Descriptive essay_ MY BEST FRIEND RADAR When I woke up in the morning I knew that today is the day for . meeting my best friend Radar.

Radar looks absolutely gorgeous. His black expresive thoughtful eyes are always slightly sad. The Most Dangerous Game? His moisterous nostrils puff up, that is usually followed by of confucius sparknotes sniffing. He breaths snoaring, sometimes bearing his healthy teeth as if he were smiling. His muscleous body with smooth skin, his slender tall legs, his magnificently shaped head. Feeling , Nose , Olfaction 349 Words | 3 Pages. Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra Departamento de Linguistica Aplicada Academic Writing Teacher: Newcombe Rosa Narrative Essay . Participant: Marcelle Lama 2011-5053 November 8th, 2013 Hope they didnít hear! Things arenít often what they appear to be at first blush. But embarrassment is. It was one of those boring days at school; my friends and I were used to it. Since we were seniors, we used to Gallaudet College and the 1968 Washington, participate in the morning act on fridays, as usual for other grades, singing.

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I spend a majority of analects, my time with both of. Best Friends , Communication , Dog 1138 Words | 3 Pages. A Friend in Need Is a Friend in Deed - Short Essay. A FRIEND IN NEED IS A FRIEND INDEED Meaning . Almost always it is the origin of a phrase or saying that requires the of happiness movie, most research; the of confucius, meaning being well understood. Indifference Essays? This phrase is of confucius sparknotes, interesting because there are various interpretations of its meaning. Game Richard? Firstly, is it 'a friend in need is a friend indeed' or 'a friend in need is a friend in analects of confucius sparknotes, deed'? Secondly, is it 'a friend (when you are) in wood pestal, need' or 'a friend (who. 16th century , 2nd millennium , Evidence 1280 Words | 4 Pages.

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Americaís Imaginary Friend Capitalism and America have a love affair that is mutually a false belief. Productivity and Indifference in America, competition make up a . portion of what capitalism is. Whereas busyness is the action capitalism creates. As a whole, the incorporation of busyness adopts the smallest aspects of everyday life. In the Adam Gopnikís essay ďBumping into Mr. Ravioli,Ē he writes about his three-year-old daughterís frustration trying to find the time to of confucius sparknotes, play with her imaginary friend , Charlie Ravioli. Olivia. Arlie Russell Hochschild , Cereal , Imaginary friend 1755 Words | 7 Pages.

? My best friend Sam I go to a school in robert, Sydney, we were sitting in class my friend came to me saying . ďrami do you want to go for sparknotes, a smoke at frost, lunchĒ, I looked at him with anger and analects sparknotes, didnít reply he then went and sat back down in robert frost, his chair. When the lunch bell rang Sam pulled out analects of confucius a bottle I thought he would of taken a drink but it was empty he told me to Racial Indifference, follow him so we went towards the back gate he sat down on the floor he got a small piece of hose out, I would of never thought Sam would be smoking. Bloods , Crime , Gang 1128 Words | 3 Pages. ??? Unit IV Lesson 1 ??? ??:______________________ ??: _______________________ ????? Project: Create a voki presentation about your best . friend . Requirements: Please describe your best friend and include the analects of confucius sparknotes, following information: ? who he/she is: include name, age, nationality, schoolÖ. ? a physical description of your best friend : use at least eight adjectives. ? his/her hobby (what he/she likes to Washington Essay, do ) ? food he/she enjoys ? his/her favorite color ( use Ö ) ? anything else. Christopher Nolan , High school , New Port Richey, Florida 298 Words | 2 Pages. the many celebrities who always seem to look picture perfect. It seems as a teenage girl some part of my life revolve around this aspiration to . be as beautiful as the girls in magazines, television, and analects of confucius, the movies. As a result, I tend to want to College 1968 Washington Essay, wear makeup while continuously buying new clothes to analects of confucius sparknotes, strive for this ideal. Seeing as this is so unattainable, I often find myself feeling insecure about my face, body, and myself in general. Furthermore, the wood pestal, internet seems to implement these ideas in a much. Adolescence , Culture , Emotion 1720 Words | 5 Pages.

? My Little Bit of Country As humans we are always haunting the feeling of belonging. Analects Of Confucius Sparknotes? Not only the feeling of belonging to wood pestal, someone we love, but . also figuring out the place where we feel home and safe. The feeling of belonging clarifies the ideal lifestyle for every individual. Some people find the feeling of sparknotes, belonging in a small suburb surrounded by Gallaudet College 1968 Washington an untamed nature. Others belong to a life surrounded by millions of analects sparknotes, people and skyscrapers. Once again, the feeling of Gallaudet and the 1968 Essay, belonging is a mindset that. Central Park , Central Park Zoo , Chicago 962 Words | 3 Pages. still remember all the times we walked together And all the time I thought you were my brother I never thought the road will bend Until . this very second And what lovely memories I still live in analects of confucius, I remember all the fights we had everyday And in the woodpile robert frost, the end telling nay It is an honor to analects, have known you Esprit de corps new You were noble And gave me respect which is pursuit of happiness movie, humble You were always an obelisk by my side Even by the rising tide Remember the Golf, Tennis and analects of confucius, Basketball You never. Education , Guru , Hinduism 732 Words | 3 Pages. Essay On Trees Our Best Friends essay on trees our best friendsYou will have national immortality with the country . Uk? through our essay on trees our best friends dialogue.

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In that respect are different saints, showing up. From this day, probably. Beach , Holiday , Holy Week 960 Words | 2 Pages. Types of analects sparknotes, Friends Essay Life without a friend is like death without a witness. 1968 Essay? -Spanish Proverb. We all have . friends , different people have different tastes and temperaments and hence make different types of friends . They tend to bond with some and of confucius, stay away from some. With time and Gallaudet and the 1968 Washington, growing trust, some people get really close to each other and remain true friends . They stand up for each other in times of need and provide full support when you lose confidence in yourself.

However, every friend is not. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1390 Words | 3 Pages. POETRY AND DRAMA - EED102G TABLE OF CONTENTS Poem Page 3 Vocabulary and of confucius, My Notes Page 4 Essay Page . 5 Plagiarism Declaration Form Page 7 Bibliography Page 8 A Young Manís Thoughts before June the 16th By: Fhazel Johennesse tomorrow i travel on a road that winds to the top of the hill i take with me only the Racial Indifference in America Essays, sweet memories of my youth my heart aches for of confucius sparknotes, my mother for friday nights with friends around a table with the broad belch of beer i ask only for a sad song sung by a. Alliteration , Boy , Madrid Metro 1199 Words | 4 Pages. My Mom, My Hero, My Best Friend Wow where do i begin. My mom is definitly . my best friend . She has been here for me through think and thin, good and bad, and robert, ups and downs. Analects Of Confucius Sparknotes? When I was seven my father passed away who was there for me and Racial Indifference in America Essays, my sister ? My mom she was my mom and my dad for a while untill one day she met a man who has been my dad for the past 12 years couldnt ask for a better dad then the one she found. My mom has helped me through so many things in analects, my life pushed me through school. English-language films , Friendship , Lie 1219 Words | 3 Pages.

1. A friend in tgi friday, need is a friend indeed. This famous saying holds true. A true friend never sees only your good days . and good deeds but he stands by you even on of confucius, the darkest day of your life. Ramu Rao studies in my class. We have been friends since class two. Indifference? On many occasions when I would forget my lunch box at home, he has shared his tiffin with me.

Once when I nearly fought with the class bully he saved me. He thought that no good would come from bad actions and to analects of confucius sparknotes, get good things in Racial in America Essays, life one. Affection , Friendship , Homework 1063 Words | 3 Pages. Amanda Judd October 26, 2011 Philosophy 120 Mondays 5 :30-8:30 Research Paper: Draft One Option i: Which character would you like to . have a cup of coffee with, and why? When it comes to the world of Harry Potter, the renown book series written by J.K. Sparknotes? Rowling, the headmaster of the Gallaudet 1968 Washington, wizardry school, Hogwarts, can be seen not only as a great leader and sparknotes, beloved character, but a philosopher as well. Albus Dumbledore has been through many hardships and challenges which has helped to robert frost, fill him. Albus Dumbledore , Harry Potter , Harry Potter and sparknotes, the Deathly Hallows 1216 Words | 4 Pages. April 11, 2013 Period 2 English 3 Honors Today I am going to explain to you about Judy Blume and her childhood, education, and all . of her great achievements. The Most Game Richard? I chose Judy Blume to write my paper on sparknotes, because she is an amazing writer and I was intrigued to learn more about her. She is an inspiration to pursuit of happiness, a lot of people and is very successful.

Judy Blume was born on February 12, 1938 in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Her parentís names are Rudolph Sussman, a dentist, and Esther. A Great Way to Care , Children's literature , Early childhood education 1786 Words | 5 Pages. ? Part One: You will read ďWho Moved My CheeseĒ by Spencer Johnson, MD. Of Confucius Sparknotes? This is a very short book with an amazing message. Read this book and tgi friday prices uk, . write a two page paper in 12pt font, 1 in margins, double-spaced Times New Roman with the information below. Spelling and grammar are part of this assignment, so make sure you proofread.

Part 1: Tell what character you identify with. I want to know why and provide examples to support your answer. Of Confucius Sparknotes? Part 2: Tell me why you believe this book has become such. Personal life , Spencer Johnson 1363 Words | 6 Pages. update me in my daily lives, like what is the most dangerous, happening in sparknotes, the government, education, religions, and economy or to our social institutions which is . the structure of our society. These will also develop my own behavior and my interaction to tgi friday prices, other people. I can clearly understand why there are different peoples with different characteristics, ideas, beliefs, principles and of confucius, values. It can also affect me through the robert frost, influence of the different peoples in of confucius sparknotes, my own environment. It lets me know what is my role as.

Better , Institution , Person 1247 Words | 3 Pages. ?Neolithic Essay Sebastian Ortiz 10/3/11 Per.2 A Day in the Life of a Neolithic Caveman . Village Leader I wake up on robert frost, my nice, soft cot made of deerskin. ĎĎOoga, wake up. You need to go to that hunt with the other men,íí my wife says. ĎĎOK. Sparknotes? Going,íí I reply. Wood Pestal? As I grab my spear, I remember when I come back from the hunt , I will have to patch that one hole in my friendís house. As the leader of the village, I have to be the.

Arrow , Deer , Hunting 837 Words | 3 Pages. accompanied your mom to buy some stuffs then you couldnít come to of confucius sparknotes, the competition that I took last week. Do you know that your coming is really important for . me. Donít you realize that?Ē Ami was so sad. ďWell, I do have sin with you, Mi. But, I have my own reason why I couldnít came lastweek. Dangerous Richard Connell? Believe me that Iíve tried to come, unfortunately God didnít allow me to see you directly on that competition.

SorryÖ..Ē Denny explained. Analects? ďJust tell me the frost, real reasons!Ē ďIÖÖÖ.Iíve something to do at that. 2005 singles , 2006 singles , 2007 singles 2316 Words | 6 Pages. writer? Q 2 Why did grandmother depend on analects of confucius sparknotes, her granddaughter to enjoy the prices, serialised story in a magazine? Q 3 How had the student passed with flying . colours? Q 4 Why was the of confucius, granddaughter surprised when her grandmother touched her feet? Q 5 How did the grandmother eventually succeed in getting over her handicap of being illiterate? Q 6 Which traits in the woodpile frost, the grandmotherís character played a vital role in her success story? Q 7 Briefly describe the condition of transport and postal.

Family , Grandparent , The Speaker 1120 Words | 4 Pages. DESCRIPTION OF MY BEST FRIEND Azeneth has been my best friend for the last 6 years. I know her . since I entered high school and since that day we have become the most inseparable friends in the world. I have much affection to her because we have lived many things together, through thick and thin, she always has been there for of confucius sparknotes, me when I needed her. I remember the day I met her, it was the first day of high school and I was very nervous because I did not know anybody from there. College Washington Essay? I remember that.

American films , Black-and-white films , Cake 1128 Words | 3 Pages. My best friends name is Brittney Lewis. We have been friends since the ninth grade. We have a few things in of confucius, common, . but we're mostly best friends because opposites attract. Brittney and I met in a Physical Science class we had together. At first we didn't talk very much if at uk, all, but after a while we grew on each other and stated hanging out together.

Since then we have remained friends and of confucius, since shared many things together like good laughs, jobs, and Indifference Essays, even some times that weren't so good for both. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Mother 983 Words | 3 Pages. Parallel Lines vs Perpendicular lines. Parallel lines can be defined as people who never meet, people who never crossed paths in their entire lives. Perpendicular . Of Confucius Sparknotes? lines can be defined as people who meet just once, and never again in the most dangerous game richard, their whole lives. Of Confucius Sparknotes? Which one would you rather be? Which one would you rather experience? Do you want to experience that whole roller coaster of emotions? To be happy, to Racial Indifference, be angry, to be upset, to be shocked, to suffer from of confucius hallucinations, to sob uncontrollably because you don't understand everything. 2005 singles , 2007 singles , 2008 singles 447 Words | 4 Pages.

?Cameron Richards Essay # 5 Mr. Whealy English 9 period 6 March 10, 2015 Why young love is like death In the play Romeo and . Juliet, written by Gallaudet 1968 Essay the great William Shakespeare, two ďstar crossed loversĒ in the roman city of sparknotes, Verona take their lives for the sake of love. So they say, but many question if Romeo and Juliet were truly in ďloveĒ. Did they fall for the woodpile, each other for their looks or for sparknotes, their hearts? Each character had to make huge decisions through the story, that later caused more problems to. Juliet Capulet , Love , Romeo + Juliet 723 Words | 3 Pages. Thumb wrestling federation Regan Lee Block C/D Paolo!! Paolo!

My mother said, Paolo what did I say about watching those thumb . wrestling matchesĒ ďcome on ma what has thumb wrestling ever done to youĒ said Paolo ďyou know what I finally think your old enough to know. Now Paolo youíre Grandfather Enrique you know the man you always see in the old pictures well when he was 22 he was drafted into the TWF, he was better known as rumble because of his monstrous thumb. Anyway he was knocking. Animation Collective , Family , Ice cream 1625 Words | 4 Pages. Personal Essay: My History with English. back to school for robert frost, my first time in sparknotes, 7 years. Gallaudet College And The 1968 Riots Essay? English is analects, one of the courses I signed up for, not only because it is a requirement, but I see it . Frost? as a necessity.

For me to be successful in college and analects sparknotes, whatever career I choose, I believe adequate reading and writing skills is important. My history with reading and writing has definitely had its ups and pursuit of happiness movie, downs throughout my life. I learned to read and write at a young age. Analects? There are a lot of Gallaudet and the 1968 Riots Essay, people in my family who are educators. My grandparents who. College , Elementary school , Harry Potter 1057 Words | 3 Pages. My Sister, My Friend , and My Mentor Every January brings a horrendous memory for my . family and analects of confucius sparknotes, myself. January being the wood pestal, month, in which my sister passed away, unexpectedly taken from of confucius our lives leaving behind the heart broken, chaotic, and the woodpile robert, depressed husband, parents, and family members. Of Confucius? No to mention, the care, love, and tenderness that this new born child would be in desperate need of, where would one begin to manage such a tragedy, to tgi friday uk, pick up the pieces left and go on to love and of confucius, care again. Birth order , Family , Grandparent 1130 Words | 3 Pages. she had said, ďYou canít count on grace to pick you out Racial in America Essays of the analects, crowd, but here is Racial Indifference in America Essays, your friend to teach you how to of confucius, high jumpĒ . ( Line 30).

I believe what she meant by this is you canít just hope opportunity will come to Gallaudet College Riots, you, but you can lean on of confucius sparknotes, your friends to steer you in the right direction. This being said, if you were greedy and after making a lot of money, it would be better for you to have skills your friends and family have taught you rather than hope to win the Racial Indifference in America, lottery. If you work a dead end. Black-and-white films , Blindness , Depression 873 Words | 3 Pages. My Grandfather Amanda Jeffries Mid-Continent University English II January 16, 2013 . Of Confucius? It was April 30, 2011. Pursuit? I was on my way to Wal-Mart with my two boys, Hunter and Harper. Since it was a Saturday morning, we were going to spend the day doing some shopping and later on, Hunter and of confucius sparknotes, Harper were going to baseball practice. As I was driving down the College and the 1968 Riots, road, suddenly, I heard the ringtone chiming. Essay , Essays , Family 1985 Words | 7 Pages. Fisherman's Friend Product Line Strategy.

Assignment 2 Product- Line Strategies 1: The chewing gum increases the brand awareness of the analects sparknotes, parent brand. This leads to an increase in . Wood Pestal? demand for analects of confucius, both the Indifference Essays, chewing gum and the lozenge. Analects Of Confucius? This could mainly happen in two ways: Firstly, the pursuit of happiness, release of a new product can remind customers about the brand and thereby lead to an increase in demand. Secondly, the customers that buy the chewing gum might be tempted to try the brandís lozenges as well. Analects Of Confucius Sparknotes? 2: Before the release of the chewing gum, the. Brand , Brand management , Costs 1068 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Fear I Will Overcome I have this fear. Prices? It causes my knees to shake. I break out in of confucius, a cold sweat.

My heart starts to beat at . 100 miles per hour and tgi friday prices, I get light headed. I am crying inside but try to act strong around people who think that I am the toughest one there. Of Confucius Sparknotes? The thoughts of certain death run through my mind as I imagine my own funeral. My stomach feels strange. My palms are clammy. I am terrified of heights. Of course, it is not really a fear of being in a high place. Wood Pestal? It is the view of. Amusement park , Anxiety , Debut albums 1144 Words | 4 Pages. essential nutrients? Explain your answer.

Yes. This recipe only has 120 calories and includes milk and of confucius, cheese which are good for the bones and pursuit of happiness, provide . vitamins that are healthy. I like to give my children mac and cheese because its kid friendly and I know they are eating a meal that is healthy for of confucius sparknotes, them. 5 . Wood Pestal? How could the recipe be altered to include more essential nutrients? This recipe can be made healthier by substituting the flour noodles for wheat noodles and using non-fat milk instead of. Eating , Essential nutrient , Food 647 Words | 3 Pages.

Muddle in sparknotes, a Puddle: Comparison of prices uk, Essay to My Life. Muddle In A Puddle: Comparison of Essay To My Life While reading the essay Muddle in analects sparknotes, a Puddle, some very . colorful images came to my mind about what I have done in my life that compare to this particular piece. Tgi Friday? Of all the sparknotes, times I have embarrassed myself by wood pestal sticking my foot in my mouth, or by making a fool of myself by playing with a strange toy in analects, the toy department, only to my surprise, everyone in the toy department was laughing at College 1968 Washington Essay, me. As Robert Herrick mentions in his poem _O how that. Essay , Flag , Mind 804 Words | 3 Pages. Stacey Wilson October 14, 2011 Swrk 251 Social work value essay My mother likes to tell the story of when I was four . years old going to my reading circle. While I was waiting for analects of confucius sparknotes, my reading circle to start, I noticed a baby crying so I picked up toys and Racial in America, started shaking them and making the baby smile. For as long as I can remember I have always like to analects of confucius sparknotes, help others, I got enjoyment out of making my friends happy.

Whenever one of my friends had a problem I was always there for them, to listen to. International Federation of Social Workers , School social worker , Social change 2231 Words | 5 Pages. For nearly two years I had a brick in my life, but somehow I couldn't tell that he was holding me back. Eventually, I realized what I needed to . The Woodpile? do. I felt like I was at analects sparknotes, the bottom of the ocean. So, I cut the brick loose and swam back up for fresh air. To everyone Alex was just an average person. He looked like every fifteen year old boy: scraggly, scrawny, and chicken legged. He had curly, dark brown hair and eyes like emeralds. He had a big nose, but it was cute in a strange way, and bushy eyebrows. 1825 Words | 4 Pages.

My Mother and her Sister Happiness is Gallaudet and the 1968 Riots, a key factor in life. Weather happiness is found in love, in career, in family - everybody deserves to . experience true happiness sometime in analects of confucius sparknotes, life. Life is not complete without this key factor. This is true in movie, the case of the mother in the short story ď My Mother and her SisterĒ who does not seem to find true happiness in analects sparknotes, life before her days are over. This assignment will begin with an wood pestal, analysis and interpretation of the short story ď My Mother and her SisterĒ.

Family , Fiction , Gustav Klimt 1352 Words | 4 Pages.

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The Principle of Beneficence in Applied Ethics. Beneficent actions and motives have traditionally occupied a central place in morality. Common examples today are found in sparknotes social welfare programs, scholarships for needy and meritorious students, communal support of health-related research, policies to improve the welfare of animals, philanthropy, disaster relief, programs to benefit children and the incompetent, and preferential hiring and admission policies. What makes these diverse acts beneficent? Are such beneficent acts and policies obligatory or merely the pursuit of the most connell, optional moral ideals? These questions have generated a substantial literature on beneficence in analects sparknotes both theoretical ethics and applied ethics. In theoretical ethics, the dominant issue in recent years has been how to place limits on the scope of beneficence.

In applied and professional ethics, a number of issues have been treated in the fields of biomedical ethics and pursuit of happiness movie, business ethics. 1. The Concepts of analects, Beneficence and pursuit movie, Benevolence. The term beneficence connotes acts of mercy, kindness, and charity. It is suggestive of altruism, love, humanity, and promoting the good of analects of confucius sparknotes, others. In ordinary language, the notion is broad, but it is understood even more broadly in of happiness movie ethical theory to include effectively all forms of action intended to benefit or promote the good of other persons. The language of a principle or rule of beneficence refers to a normative statement of a moral obligation to act for the others' benefit, helping them to further their important and legitimate interests, often by preventing or removing possible harms. Many dimensions of of confucius, applied ethics appear to incorporate such appeals to obligatory beneficence, even if only implicitly. Dangerous Game Richard. For example, when apparel manufacturers are criticized for not having good labor practices in factories, the analects sparknotes, ultimate goal of the criticisms is usually to obtain better working conditions, wages, and benefits for workers. Whereas beneficence refers to an action done to benefit others, benevolence refers to the morally valuable character traitor virtueof being disposed to act to benefit others.

Many acts of beneficence have been understood in moral theory as obligatory, as determined by the most game connell, principles of beneficence that state moral obligation. However, beneficent acts also may be performed from nonobligatory, optional moral ideals, which are standards that belong to analects, a morality of meritorious aspiration in which individuals or institutions adopt goals and practices that are not obligatory for everyone. Exceptional beneficence is commonly categorized as supererogatory , a term meaning paying or performing beyond what is obligatory or doing more than is required. This category of extraordinary conduct usually refers to high moral ideals of action, but it has links to virtues and to Aristotelian ideals of moral excellence. Such ideals of action and moral excellence of character need not rise to the level of the moral saint or moral hero. Even moral excellence comes by degrees. Not all supererogatory acts of beneficence or benevolent dispositions are exceptionally arduous, costly, or risky.

Examples of prices uk, less demanding forms include anonymous gift-giving, uncompensated public service, forgiving another person's costly error, and complying with requests to provide a benefit that exceeds the obligatory requirements of ordinary morality or professional morality. Saintly and heroic beneficence (and benevolence) are at sparknotes, the extreme end of a continuum of beneficent conduct and commitment. This continuum is not merely a continuum mapping the the woodpile robert frost, territory beyond duty. Analects Of Confucius Sparknotes. It is a continuum of beneficence itself, starting with obligatory beneficence. The continuum runs from strict obligation (grounded in the core norms of beneficence in ordinary morality) through weaker obligations (the outer periphery of ordinary expectations of persons, such as great conscientiousness in attending to a friend's welfare) and on to the domain of the morally nonrequired and the woodpile robert, exceptionally virtuous. The nonrequired starts with lower?level acts of supererogation such as helping a stranger who is lost find a desired location in a city. An absence of this sort of beneficence constitutes a defect in the moral life, even if not a failure of analects sparknotes, obligation. The continuum ends with high-level acts of supererogation such as heroic acts of and the Riots Essay, self-sacrifice to benefit others. Beneficence is best understood as spread across this continuum. However, there is analects sparknotes, considerable controversy about where obligation ends and supererogation begins on the continuum.

A celebrated example of beneficence that rests somewhere on this continuum, though it is hard to locate just where, is the New Testament parable of the Good Samaritan. In this parable, robbers have beaten and left half-dead a man traveling from Jerusalem to Racial Essays, Jericho. Analects Sparknotes. A Samaritan tends to his wounds and cares for him at an inn. The Samaritan's actions are beneficent and the motives benevolent. However, they do not seemon the information givento rise to of happiness, the level of heroic or saintly conduct.

The morally exceptional, beneficent person may be laudable and emulable, yet neither a moral saint nor a moral hero. 2. Of Confucius Sparknotes. The Historical Place of Beneficence in Ethical Theory. The history of ethical theory shows that there are many ways to think about beneficence and benevolence. Several landmark ethical theories have embraced these moral notions as central categories, while proposing strikingly different conceptual and wood pestal, moral analyses. Prime examples are found in sparknotes the moral-sentiment theory of David Hume, where benevolence is the prices uk, central “principle” of human nature in sparknotes his moral psychology, and in utilitarian theories, where the principle of utility is itself a strong and demanding principle of beneficence. Beneficence in these writers is close to the essence of morality. Other writers, including Kant, have given less dominance to beneficence, but still give it an important place in morality. Hume's moral psychology and virtue ethics make motives of benevolence all important in frost moral life.

He argues that natural benevolence accounts, in great part, for what he calls the origin of morality. A major theme is analects, his defense of wood pestal, benevolence as a principle in human nature, in opposition to theories of psychological egoism. Much in Hume's moral theory is directed against Mandeville's (and perhaps Hobbes's) theory that the motive underlying human action is private interest and that humans are naturally neither sociable nor benevolent. Hume argues that egoism rests on a faulty moral psychology and maintains that benevolence is an “original” feature of analects sparknotes, human nature. Benevolence is Hume's most important moral principle of human nature, but he also uses the term “benevolence” to designate a class of virtues rooted in Gallaudet College 1968 Riots Essay goodwill, generosity, and love directed at of confucius, others. And The Riots Essay. Hume finds benevolence in many manifestations: friendship, charity, compassion, etc. Although he speaks of both benevolence and of confucius, justice as social virtues, only benevolence is a principle of human nature. Rules of justice, by contrast, are normative human conventions that promote public utility. In his inquiries into the principle of self-love, Hume does not reject all aspects of the egoists' claims about the absence of impartial benevolence in human motivation.

He acknowledges many motives in human nature and uses metaphors of the dove, wolf, and serpent to illustrate the mixture of elements in our nature. Principally, he sees human nature in the domain of moral conduct as a mixture of benevolence and tgi friday prices, self-love. Whereas the egoist views human nature as limited to motives such as survival, fear, ambition, and the search for sparknotes happiness, Hume regards persons as motivated by a variety of passions, both generous and game richard, ungenerous. Analects Of Confucius Sparknotes. He maintains that these elements vary by degree from person to person. Lacking distinctive information about a particular individual, we cannot know whether in that person benevolence typically dominates and controls self-love, or the converse. In Utilitarianism , John Stuart Mill argues that moral philosophers have left a train of unconvincing and incompatible theories that can be coherently unified by Indifference in America Essays, a single standard of beneficence that allows us to decide objectively what is right and wrong. He declares the principle of utility, or the “greatest happiness” principle, to be the basic foundation of morals: Actions are right in analects proportion to pursuit movie, their promotion of happiness for all beings, and of confucius sparknotes, wrong as they produce the reverse. 1968 Washington. This is a straightforward principle of beneficence and potentially a very demanding one. Mill and subsequent utilitarians mean that an action or practice is right (when compared with any alternative action or practice) if it leads to the greatest possible balance of beneficial consequences (happiness for Mill) or to the least possible balance of bad consequences (unhappiness for Mill). Mill also holds that the concepts of duty, obligation, and right are subordinated to, and determined by, that which maximizes benefits and minimizes harmful outcomes.

The principle of of confucius sparknotes, utility is presented by wood pestal, Mill as an absolute or preeminent principle, thus making beneficence the one and only supreme principle of ethics. Analects Sparknotes. It justifies all subordinate rules and is not simply one among a number of prima facie principles. Mill's theory of morality is welfare-oriented at its core because moral rightness is determined by tgi friday uk, goodness, which is itself to be understood in of confucius terms of the welfare of individuals. It is a consequentialist theory because the moral rightness and obligatoriness of Essays, actions are established by their beneficial results. It is an aggregative theory because a judgment about right or obligatory action depends on an appraisal of the effects of different possible actions on sparknotes the welfare of all affected parties, which entails summing positive benefits and negative effects over all persons affected. Beneficence has rarely occupied such a central role in a moral theory. Kant notoriously rejects the utilitarian model of a supreme principle of beneficence, but he still finds a vital place in Racial Indifference in America the moral life for beneficence.

He seeks universally valid principles (or maxims) of duty, and beneficence is one such principle. A motive of benevolence based on analects sentimentso admired by robert, Humeis morally unworthy in Kant's theory unless the motive behind benevolent action is analects, a motive of the woodpile robert frost, duty. The motive likewise cannot rest on utilitarian goals. Kant argues that everyone has a duty to be beneficent, i.e. to be helpful to others according to one's means, and without hoping for any form of personal gain thereby. Benevolence done from of confucius, friendly inclination he regards as “unlimited” (a term subject to different interpretations, but meaning at least “having no boundaries in wood pestal potential scope”), whereas beneficence from sparknotes, duty does not place unlimited demands on persons. Nonetheless, the limits of duties of beneficence are not clear and precise in Kant. While we are obligated to some extent to sacrifice some part of our welfare to benefit others without any expectation of recompense, it is not possible in the abstract to fix a definite limit on prices uk how far this duty extends.

We can only say that everyone has a duty to be beneficent, according to that person's means, and that no one has an unlimited duty to do so. Kant here anticipates, without developing, what would later become one of the most difficult areas of the theory of beneficence: How, exactly, are we to specify the analects sparknotes, limits of beneficence as an wood pestal, obligation? 3. Is Beneficence Obligatory or Merely a Moral Ideal? Deep disagreements have emerged in moral theory regarding how much is demanded by obligations of beneficence. Some ethical theories insist not only that there are obligations of beneficence, but that these obligations sometimes demand severe sacrifice and extreme generosity in the moral life. Some formulations of utilitarianism, for analects sparknotes example, appear to derive obligations to give our job to Gallaudet and the 1968, a person who needs it more than we do, to of confucius, give away most of our income, to devote much of our time to civic enterprises, etc. It is likely that no society has ever operated on such a demanding principle, but it does seem embraced, at wood pestal, least abstractly, by a number of sparknotes, moral philosophersarguably even on Kant's theory of the categorical imperative (although, as already mentioned, Kant seems to deny such scope to obligatory beneficence). By contrast, some moral philosophers have claimed that we have no general obligations of beneficence. We have only duties deriving from specific roles and pursuit movie, assignments of duty that are not a part of ordinary morality. Analects Of Confucius. These philosophers hold that beneficent action is virtuous and a commendable moral ideal, but not an obligation, and thus that persons are not morally deficient if they fail to act beneficently. Wood Pestal. An instructive example is found in the moral theory of Bernard Gert, who maintains that there are no moral rules of beneficence, only of confucius, moral ideals.

The only obligations in the moral life, apart from duties encountered in professional roles and wood pestal, other specific stations of duty, are captured by moral rules that prohibit causing harm or evil. In Gert's theory, the general goal of morality is to minimize the causation of evil or harm, not to promote good. Rational persons can act impartially at all times in regard to all persons with the aim of not causing evil, he argues, but rational persons cannot impartially promote the good for analects of confucius sparknotes all persons at all times. Those who defend such a beneficence-negating conclusion (regarding obligation) do not hold the extreme view that there are no obligations of beneficence in contexts of the woodpile frost, role-assigned duties, such as those in professional ethics and in specific communities. They acknowledge that professional and other roles carry obligations (or duties, as Gert insists) that do not bind persons who do not occupy the relevant roles; they claim that the actions one is analects sparknotes, obligated to perform within the roles are merely moral ideals for any person not in the specific role. That is, these philosophers present beneficence not as a general obligation, but as a role-specific duty and as institutionally or culturally assigned. In rejecting principles of obligatory beneficence, Gert draws the line at obligations of dangerous richard connell, nonmaleficence. That is, he embraces rules that prohibit causing harm to other persons, even though he rejects all principles or rules that require helping other persons, which includes acting to prevent harm to them. Of Confucius Sparknotes. Thus, he accepts moral rules such as “Don't kill,” “Don't cause pain or suffering to others,” “Don't incapacitate others,” “Don't deprive others of the goods of Gallaudet and the 1968 Washington Essay, life,” and the like. His theory therefore makes nonmaleficence central to the nature and theory of moral obligation while denying that beneficence has any place in the theory of obligation.

However, the mainstream of moral philosophy has been to make both not-harming and helping to be obligations, while preserving the distinction between the two. This literature can be confusing, because some writers treat obligations of nonmaleficence as a species of obligations of beneficence, although the two notions are very different. Rules of beneficence are typically more demanding than rules of nonmaleficence, and rules of nonmaleficence are negative prohibitions of action that must be followed impartially and analects sparknotes, that provide moral reasons for legal prohibitions of certain forms of conduct. By contrast, rules of beneficence state positive requirements of action, need not always be followed impartially, and rarely, if ever, provide moral reasons that support legal punishment when agents fail to abide by the rules. The contrast between nonmaleficence and beneficence notwithstanding, ordinary morality suggests that there are some rules of game richard connell, beneficence that we are obligated to follow impartially, such as those requiring that we make efforts to rescue strangers under conditions of minimal risk. Even some legal punishments for failure to rescue strangers may be justifiable.

Significant controversies have arisen in both law and moral philosophy about analects how to Racial Indifference in America, formulate and defend such requirements, but one more or less classic idea has been to argue that a person P has an obligation of beneficence to help another whenever the other is at risk of significant loss of or damage to some basic interest; P's action is necessary (singly or collaboratively) to prevent this loss or damage; P's action (singly or collaboratively) is likely to prevent the sparknotes, loss or damage; and P's action does not present significant risks, costs, or burdens to P while the benefits that the pursuit movie, other person can be expected to gain outweigh any burden that P is likely to analects sparknotes, incur. 4. The Problem of Over-Demanding Beneficence. Some philosophers defend extremely demanding and far-reaching principles of obligatory beneficence. Peter Singer's theory is the most widely discussed example. In his early work, Singer distinguished between preventing evil and promoting good and contended that persons in affluent nations are morally obligated to prevent something bad or evil from the most dangerous, happening if it is in their power to do so without having to sacrifice anything of analects sparknotes, comparable importance. In the face of preventable disease and poverty, for example, we ought to donate time and resources toward their eradication until we reach a level at which, by Essays, giving more, we would cause as much suffering to ourselves as we would relieve through our gift. Analects Of Confucius Sparknotes. Singer leaves it open what counts as being of comparable importance and as being an appropriate level of sacrifice, but his argument implies that morality sometimes requires us to invest heavily in rescuing needy persons in the global population, not merely at the level of local communities and political states. This claim implies that morality sometimes requires us to make enormous sacrifices. Wood Pestal. It would appear that the demand is analects sparknotes, placed not only on tgi friday prices individuals with disposable incomes, but on analects of confucius all reasonably well-off persons, foundations, governments, corporations, etc. All of these parties have moral obligations to Essay, refrain from spending resources on nonessential items and to use the available resources or savings to lend assistance to analects sparknotes, those in urgent need. Uk. Frills, fashion, luxuries, and the like are never to determine expenditures, and one is to analects, give to the needy up to the point that one (or one's dependent) would be impoverished.

Singer has not regarded such conduct as an Racial Indifference, enormous moral sacrifice, but only as the discharge of a basic obligation of of confucius sparknotes, beneficence. Singer's proposals have struck many as overly demanding, impracticable, and a significant departure from the demands of Indifference in America, ordinary morality. This assessment has generated a number of criticisms, as well as defenses, of of confucius sparknotes, demanding principles of beneficence such as the one proposed by Singer. Critics continue today to movie, argue that a principle of beneficence that requires persons, governments, and corporations to seriously disrupt their projects and plans in analects sparknotes order to benefit the poor and underprivileged exceeds the limits of ordinary moral obligations and have no plausible grounding in moral theory. The Most Dangerous Game Richard Connell. They argue that the line between the analects of confucius sparknotes, obligatory and Essays, the supererogatory has been unjustifiably erased by such a principle. In effect, the claim is that an aspirational moral ideal has redrawn the lines of real moral obligation. Singer has attempted to reformulate his position so that his theory of beneficence does not set an overly demanding standard. He maintains that no clear justification exists for the claim that obligations of ordinary morality do not contain a demanding principle of beneficence, in particular a harm-prevention principle. He apparently would explain the lack of concern often shown for poverty relief as a failure to analects of confucius sparknotes, draw the correct implications from the very principles of beneficence that ordinary morality embraces.

Later in wood pestal his series of publications on the subject Singer attempted to take account of objections that his principle sets an analects, unduly high standard. He has not given up his strong principle of beneficence, but he has suggested that it might be morally wise and most productive to Gallaudet College Washington Essay, publicly advocate a lower standardthat is, a weakened principle of beneficence. He therefore proposed a more guarded formulation of the principle, arguing that we should strive for donations of a round percentage of income, such as 10 per cent, which amounts to more than a token donation and yet also is not so high as to make us miserable or turn us into moral saints. This standard, Singer proclaimed, is the analects of confucius, minimum that we ought to do to conform to obligations of beneficence. Controversy continues today about how to analyze and evaluate the and the 1968 Washington Essay, commitments of a principle of beneficence, including how to of confucius sparknotes, formulate limits that reduce required burdens on robert agents' life plans and make meeting the obligations of beneficence a realistic possibility. Various writers have noted that even after many persons have donated generous portions of of confucius, their income, they could still donate more while living decent lives; and, according to a strong principle of beneficence, they should donate more. Establishing the theoretical and in America Essays, practical limits of donation and sacrifice is clearly very challenging, and perhaps an impossible ideal. However, it does not follow that we should give up a principle of beneficence. It only follows that establishing the analects sparknotes, moral limits of the demands of beneficence is profoundly difficult. Liam Murphy has proposed to fix the limits of individual beneficence to meet global problems of Gallaudet College and the 1968, need by using a cooperative principle of fairness in which, in any given circumstance, it must first be determined what each reasonably affluent person must do to sparknotes, contribute a fair share to an optimal outcome.

An individual is pursuit movie, only required to aid others beneficently at the level that would produce the best consequences if all in analects of confucius sparknotes society were to give their fair share. The Most Game Richard. One is not required to do more even if others fail in their fair-share obligations of beneficence. Unlike act-consequentialism, this theory does not demand more of agents when expected compliance by others decreases. Murphy's cooperative principle is of confucius sparknotes, intuitively attractive, but it may not have the necessary moral punch to address issues such as global poverty. Murphy seems right to suggest that large-scale problems requiring beneficence should be conceived as cooperative projects, but his limit on individual obligations seems unlikely to have a practical effect of increasing international aid and the like beyond present commitments and levels.

If, as is to be expected in virtually all situations of global poverty, others fail to the woodpile frost, comply with their fair-share obligations of beneficence as set out in analects sparknotes this theory, it is not clear why each person's obligation is set only by the original calculation of a single fair share. This is not to say that Singer's approach is superior. The more demanding a principle is, the Gallaudet College and the Riots, less likely are people to comply with its demands. Also, at an intuitive level, Murphy seems right that an individual's obligations of beneficence should not increase to fill gaps merely because others are failing to meet their obligations. In his Uehiro Lectures on of confucius sparknotes Global Poverty, Singer defended his arguments about beneficence including the wood pestal, public advocacy thesis (see the Other Internet Resources). Here a difference of emphasis emerged in analects of confucius sparknotes his theory, together with a somewhat sympathetic response to Murphy. Singer seems concerned with which social conditions will motivate people to give, rather than with attempting to determine obligations of beneficence with precision. Singer responds to critics such as Murphy by pursuit of happiness, conceding that perhaps the limit of sparknotes, what we should publicly advocate as a level of giving is no more than a person's fair share of what is needed to relieve poverty and robert, the like. Unless we draw the line here, we might not be able to motivate people to give at all. A fair share is a lower threshold of one's obligations than the obligations Singer originally envisaged, but more realistic.

The emphasis on motivation is presumably intended to give is a more subtle and convincing approach to the nature and limits of beneficence. Wherever the line of precise limits of obligatory beneficence is drawn, the line is likely to be revisionary by drawing a sharper boundary on our obligations than exists in ordinary morality. Singer's proposals, unlike Murphy's, seem to represent a revision of ordinary morality's requirements of beneficence, despite the faint presence in the history of Western morality of religious obligations of tithing. A variety of proposals regarding the limits of beneficence have been made by philosophers, but no agreement on even a general principle exists. Accordingly, many now doubt that ethical theory or practical deliberation is equipped to establish precise conditions and limits of obligations of of confucius, beneficence. 5. Liberty-Limiting Beneficence: The Problem of Benefit Paternalism. A still much-discussed issue about beneficence descends historically from Mill's On Liberty , where Mill inquired into the nature and limits of justifiable social control over the individual. He argues that the Racial Indifference Essays, measure of a person's libertyor personal autonomyis the measure of the person's independence from influences that control the person's preferences, thoughts, and behavior. Various principles commonly assumed to be moral principles have been advanced to justify the limitation of analects of confucius sparknotes, individual liberties. Joel Feinberg, who was philosophically close to Racial Essays, various of Mill's views, called these principles “liberty-limiting principles.” Mill defended the of confucius, view that only one principle validly limits liberty.

Feinberg called it the harm principle : A person's liberty (or autonomy) is justifiably restricted to prevent harm to others caused by that person. Mill and Feinberg agreed that the tgi friday prices uk, principle of paternalism , which renders acceptable certain attempts to benefit another person when the other does not prefer to receive the benefit, is not a morally acceptable liberty-limiting principle. The term paternalism has its roots in the notion of paternal administrationgovernment as by a father to administer in the way a beneficent father raises his children. The analogy with the father presupposes two features of the paternal role: that the father acts beneficently (that is, in accordance with the of confucius, interests of his children) and that he makes all or at least some of the decisions relating to his children's welfare, rather than leaving them free to make those decisions. On this model, “paternalism” may be defined as the intentional overriding of one person's known preferences or choices by tgi friday, another person, where the person who overrides justifies the action by the goal of substantially benefiting or avoiding harm to the person whose preferences or choices are overridden. (Both “benefiting” and “avoiding harm” can here, though not always, be understood as forms of beneficence.) An act of paternalism, then, overrides moral obligations to respect autonomous choice on grounds of beneficence. Philosophers divide sharply over analects of confucius sparknotes whether some restricted form of wood pestal, paternalism can be justified and, if so, on what basis. One plausible beneficence-based justification of paternalistic actions places benefits on a scale with autonomy interests and balances the two: As a person's interests in analects of confucius sparknotes autonomy increase and the benefits for that person decrease, the justification of paternalistic action becomes less cogent; conversely, as the benefits for a person increase and College and the 1968, that person's interests in autonomy decrease, the analects of confucius sparknotes, justification of paternalistic action becomes more plausible.

Thus, preventing minor harms or providing minor benefits while deeply disrespecting autonomy lacks plausible justification; but actions that prevent major harms or provide major benefits while only trivially disrespecting autonomy have a highly plausible paternalistic rationale. Though no consensus exists over in America the justification of paternalism, virtually no one thinks that benefit paternalism can be justified unless at least the following conditions are satisfied: A person is at risk of analects of confucius, a significant and preventable harm or loss of a benefit. The paternalistic action has a strong likelihood of richard, preventing the harm or obtaining the benefit. Analects. The projected benefits of the Racial in America Essays, paternalistic action outweigh its risks. The least autonomy-restrictive alternative that will secure the benefits and reduce the risks is adopted. Debates about benefit paternalism have also emerged in public policy contexts.

Often health policies have the goal of avoiding a harm or providing a benefit in a population in which most affected parties are not consulted. Some percentage of the population will not support the policy, for example, because they are given no choice in the matter, whereas others will approve the policy. In effect, the policy is intended to benefit all members of a population without consulting the analects sparknotes, preferences of individuals affectedall the while foreseeing that many individuals will reject the pursuit, imposed control that the policy exerts over their lives. So-called neopaternalists have argued for government policies intended to protect or benefit individuals through shaping or steering their choices without, in analects of confucius fact, altogether disallowing or coercing those choices. Some recommend policies that pursue values that an intended beneficiary already, at least implicitly, holds but cannot realize because of pursuit of happiness movie, limited capacities, limited resources or limited self-control.

In this context, the individual's own stated preferences, choices, and actions are deemed unreasonable in light of analects sparknotes, other standards the person is regarded as embracing. This conception faces the problem that what an informed and competent person chooses to do is generally the best evidence we have of his or her values. For example, if a deeply religious man fails to follow the dietary restrictions of his religion, although he is in the abstract strongly committed to all aspects of the religion, his departures from dietary laws may be the wood pestal, best evidence we have of of confucius sparknotes, his true values on the particular matter of dietary restrictions. Because it seems correctshort of counterevidence in the most game particular casesthat competent informed choice is the best evidence of a person's values, a justified paternalism must, among other things, have adequate evidence that this assumption is misguided in any given case. 6. Beneficence in Biomedical Ethics. Since the late 1970s, principles of beneficence have been a mainstay of the literature of of confucius, biomedical ethics. Persons engaged in medical practice, research, and public health appreciate that risks of harm presented by wood pestal, interventions must often be weighed against possible benefits for patients, subjects, and the public. Their professional obligations are deeply informed by their commitments to prevent or reduce harm and to produce a positive balance of analects sparknotes, goods over inflicted harms. Beneficence has played a major role in a central conceptual issue about the nature and goals of medicine as a social practice. If the end of medicine is healing, a goal of beneficence, then arguably medicine is fundamentally a beneficent undertaking.

If so, beneficence grounds and determines the professional obligations and robert frost, virtues of the physician. Authors such as Edmund Pellegrino write as if beneficence is the sole foundational principle of professional medical ethics. In this theory, medical beneficence is oriented exclusively to the end of healing and not to any other form of analects of confucius sparknotes, benefit. The category of tgi friday, medical benefits does not, for Pellegrino, include items such as providing fertility controls (unless for the prevention and maintenance of health and bodily integrity), performing purely cosmetic surgery, or actively helping a patient to effect a merciful death by the active hastening of death. This characterization of the ends of medicine allows Pellegrino to of confucius, limit severely what counts as a medical benefit for patients: Benefit in medicine is limited to healing and related activities such as caring for Gallaudet College 1968 Essay and preventing injury or disease.

This thesis is controversial. Even if healing and the like are interpreted broadly, medicine does not seem to have such precise boundaries to many other writers. If beneficence is of confucius sparknotes, a general moral principle and if physicians are positioned to supply many forms of benefit, there is no manifest reason why physicians' hands are tied to the single benefit of healing, even in their role as medical professionals. The range of benefits that might be considered relevant seems broader and Gallaudet College and the 1968 Washington Riots, could include prescribing pharmaceutical products or devices that prevent fertility (where there is no healing-related purpose), providing purely cosmetic surgery for aesthetic (by contrast to reconstructive) reasons, helping patients write realistic living wills, complying with terminally ill patients' requests for physician-assistance in dying by hastening death, and the like. If these are bona fide medical benefits, then how far does the range of benefits extend? If a physician runs a company that manufactures powered wheel chairs for analects sparknotes the elderly, does this activity supply a medical benefit? When physicians consult with an and the Riots Essay, insurance company about cost-effective treatments that save their patients money, is analects, this activity a beneficent component of the practice of medicine? Controversy over the ends of medicine requires decisions about what is to count as the practice of medicine and, derivatively, what counts as medical beneficence. Controversy appears not only in the literature of biomedical ethics, but also in wood pestal some split decisions of the U. Analects Sparknotes. S. Supreme Courtmost notably in Gonzales v. Oregon , a case dealing with physician-hastened death. The majority decision in this case asserts that there is no consensus among health care professionals about the precise boundaries of the legitimate practice of wood pestal, medicine , a legal notion similar to the medical-ethics notion of the proper ends of medicine.

The court notes that there is reasonable disagreement in the community of physicians regarding the appropriate process for analects sparknotes determining the boundaries of medical practice and Gallaudet College and the 1968 Washington, that there is disagreement about the extent to which the government should be involved in analects drawing boundaries when physicians themselves disagree. This court opinion allows that, depending on state law, a physician may legitimately assist in various ways to help bring about the wood pestal, death of a terminally ill patient who has explicitly and competently requested this assistance from the physician. 6.2 Harms and Benefits in Health Care. A health professional's conception of sparknotes, both harm to and benefit for a patient can differ sharply from dangerous richard connell, that of the patient, but the analects of confucius, health professional's understandings of benefits also often depend on pursuit movie the patient's view of what constitutes a benefit or a worthwhile risk. Analects Sparknotes. Different patients take different views about pursuit of happiness movie what constitutes a harm and a benefit, and when each view is reasonable it is morally unacceptable to maintain that the notions of analects, medical benefit and harm are objectively independent of the patient's judgment. Physician-hastened death by request of the patient controversially characterized as physician-assisted suicideis again a prominent example of dangerous game connell, this problem.

Physicians and nurses have long worried that patients who forgo life-sustaining treatment with the intention of dying are killing themselves and that health professionals are assisting in their suicide. These worries have recently receded in significance in biomedical ethics, because there is now a consensus in law and ethics that it is never a moral violation to withhold or withdraw a medical treatment that has been validly refused. This consensus began to be developed with the case of Karen Ann Quinlan in 1976 and eventually was formed around U. S. Supreme Court decisions, especially the Cruzan Case of 1990. The writings of numerous philosophers and lawyers contributed to the formation of sparknotes, this consensus. Wood Pestal. A clear part of the consensus is sparknotes, that it is a moral violation not to withhold or withdraw a validly refused treatment. If death is hastened in this way by a physician's omission or action, there can be no moral objection to what has been done, and a physician's cooperation can rightly be viewed as merciful and dangerous richard connell, benevolent.

However, this problem has been replaced by another: Is it harmful or beneficial to help a competent patient who has requested a hastened death? In addition to vexed questions about the purported distinction between killing and of confucius sparknotes, letting die, the uk, issue presses the question of what counts as a benefit and what counts as a harm. Is requested death in the face of miserable suffering a benefit for some patients while a harm for other patients? When is it a benefit, and when a harm? Is the answer to this question determined by the method used to bring about death--for example, withdrawal of treatment by contrast to use of lethal medication? 6.3 Social Beneficence and analects sparknotes, Public Policy. A number of controversial issues in biomedical ethics concern how public policy could, and should, change if obligations of social beneficence were given more strength in policy formulation than they have traditionally been afforded. The foundations of public policy regarding organ procurement provide an instructive example.

Established legal and policy precedents in many countries require express consent by a decedent before death or by the family after death. A near absolute right of autonomy to decide about the disposition of organs and tissues has been the prevailing norm. However, this approach impairs the wood pestal, efficient collection of needed tissues and organs, and many people die as a result of the shortage of organs. Of Confucius. The scarcity of Racial Indifference, organs and tissues and the inefficiency of the system have prompted a spate of proposals for reform of the current system of procurement, with the goal of creating more space for social beneficence. One policy proposal with a notably strong social-beneficence commitment is the analects sparknotes, routine retrieval of organs and tissues.

In this system of procurement, a community is permitted to, and encouraged to, routinely collect organs and tissues from the deceased, unless the dead person had previously registered his or her objection to the system with the state. Pursuit. The routine retrieval of tissues and organs from the analects of confucius, deceased is unjustified on pursuit of happiness movie traditional grounds of respect for autonomy. However, advocates of the sparknotes, policy of routine retrieval argue that members of a community have an obligation to provide other persons with objects of lifesaving value when no cost to pursuit, themselves is required. That is, the justification is in beneficence, not respect for autonomy. The debate will continue for of confucius many years about whether beneficence or respect for autonomy should prevail in public policy governing organ retrieval. Advocates of the current system argue that individual and family rights of consent should retain dominance. Advocates of routine retrieval argue that traditional social priorities involving beneficence in the woodpile robert frost conflict with autonomy have been wrongly structured.

Most contributors to the literature on the subject agree that the present situation of low-level organ-procurement is morally unsatisfactory and in need of some measure of reform. 6.4 Social Beneficence and Social Justice. Some of the most important issues in the ethics of health and health care today are widely classified as issues of social justice. However, at the hands of many writers, social justice is notably similar to social beneficence. The underlying moral problem in global ethics is how to analects of confucius sparknotes, structure both the global order and national systems that affect health so that burdens are avoided, benefits are provided, and the woodpile frost, then both are fairly distributed using a threshold condition of equitable levels of health and access to health care. Analects Sparknotes. Globalization has brought a realization that problems of protecting health and providing beneficial services are international in nature and that their alleviation will require a restructuring of the Gallaudet College Washington Riots Essay, global system. John Rawls's A Theory of Justice has been an enormously influential work in analects of confucius discussions of Racial Indifference in America Essays, these problems in biomedical ethics. Of Confucius. Rawls argues that a social arrangement forming a political state is a communal effort to advance the good of robert frost, all in the society. His starting assumptions are layered with beneficent, egalitarian goals of making the unequal situation of the naturally disadvantaged members of society both better and more equal.

His recognition of a positive societal obligation to eliminate or reduce barriers that prevent fair opportunity and that correct or compensate for various disadvantages has implications for discussions of both beneficence and justice in health care, although Rawls himself never pursued these health issues. Rawls's theory has influenced many writers on moral problems of health and biomedical ethics, including Norman Daniels, Thomas Pogge, Martha Nussbaum, and Madison Powers and Ruth Faden. Analects. One of Daniels' main questions is “How can we meet health needs fairly under reasonable limits to resources committed to the task?” The “fairly” part of this formulation may be justice-based, but the pursuit, notion of “reasonable limits to resources” is sparknotes, closely tied to wood pestal, the problems of the limits of beneficence mentioned previously. Daniels argues that because health is affected by many social factors, theories of justice should not center entirely on access to of confucius, health care, but also on the need to reduce health inequalities by improving social conditions that affect the health of societies, such as having clean water, adequate nutrition, and general sanitation. Pogge views the well-being of the worst-off members of global society as the the most game richard connell, proper starting point for a practical theory of analects of confucius sparknotes, justice, but his theory can also be expressed as an argument from social beneficence. Pogge has been concerned with the sweep of the woodpile robert, global poverty and of confucius sparknotes, its impact on health and welfarean interest almost identical to the theories of wood pestal, Singer and Powers and Faden. The consequences of extreme poverty for health are well-documented, and these consequences inform Pogge's and Powers and Faden's theories of both basic well-being and justice.

Among other things, these theories assess the degree to which institutional structures can be expected to fulfill the mandates of the theory. They demand that persons have access to basic goods of housing, food, and health care. Recently, so-called “capabilities theory” has, at the hands of some writers, merged concerns of justice and beneficence. This type of theory focuses on distributions intended to enable persons to reach certain functional levels essential for a flourishing life that is protected by social institutions, The idea is to start with an understanding of health and individual well-being and then to analects of confucius sparknotes, connect that account to tgi friday prices uk, basic capabilities for achieving levels of analects of confucius sparknotes, functioning essential to well-beingthrough, for example, proper nutrition and access to health care. Some core capabilities are bodily health, ability to play, ability to tgi friday prices, affiliate socially, freedom of movement, and analects of confucius, adequate educational level. Amartya Sen and uk, Martha Nussbaum are advocates of a capabilities theory. Some writers closely connected to bioethics and health policy have moved beyond capabilities theory with a twist toward beneficence and well-being.

Powers and Faden provide a theory closely connected to global health policy. They start with a basic premise: Social justice is concerned with human well-beingnot only health, but what they call six distinct, core dimensions of well-being. The six are health, personal security, reasoning, respect, attachment, and self-determination. Of Confucius Sparknotes. Each of these dimensions is an independent concern of justice. While this list of six dimensions is in some respects similar to Nussbaum'sfor example, “attachment” resembles what Nussbaum calls “affiliation” Powers and Faden reject the Indifference in America, language of capabilities as misleading and analects of confucius, wide of the target of a theory of justice. Theirs is a list of essential core dimensions of well-being, not core capabilities. Being healthy, being secure, and being respected are desirable states of Racial Indifference, being, not merely capabilities or functionings. For example, we want not merely the capability to be well-nourished, but to be well-nourished. Justice is concerned with the achievement of well-being, not merely achieving the capabilities to pursue it. In this account, the justice of societies and of the global order can be judged by how well they effect these well-being dimensions in their political structures and social practices.

The job of justice is to secure a sufficient level of each dimension for each person and to alleviate the social structures that cause the sparknotes, corresponding forms of ill-being. This theory of well-being and its place in moral theory and social policy could also be expressed in terms of the role of social beneficence. Business ethics is a second area of applied ethics in which questions about beneficence have emerged as central. Hume's immediate successor in sentiment theory, Adam Smith, held a important view about the role and place of benevolence that has influenced a number of writers in business ethics. Smith argued that the wealth of nations and the well-being of their citizens are dependent upon social cooperationfundamentally, political and pursuit movie, economic cooperationbut that this realm is not dependent on the benevolence of moral relations. Smith proposes that it would be vain for us to expect benevolence in market societies. In commercial transactions the only successful strategy in motivating persons is to appeal to personal advantage: Never expect benevolence from a butcher, brewer, or baker; expect from analects of confucius sparknotes, them only a regard to their own interest. Market societies operate not by concerns of humanity and benevolence, but from self-love. Several problems in business ethics are attempts to come to grips with Smith's view. Discussions of the role of the corporation in society and the very purpose of a corporation as a social institution are examples. It is not disputed that the purpose of a for-profit corporation is to Gallaudet College and the 1968 Washington, make a profit for stockholders, but there is an intense debate about analects sparknotes whether maximizing stockholder profits is the sole legitimate purpose of corporationsas Milton Friedman and others have arguedand whether truly beneficent corporate conduct is justifiable.

This question is normative, but there is also the question of moral psychology raised by Smith: Is it reasonable to expect benevolent acts from the business community? Does beneficence have any place in the world of business as we know it? Corporate social programs often appear to involve a mixture of the woodpile robert, limited beneficence and self-interested goals such as developing and sustaining relationships with customers. An example is found in public utilities' programs to help customers pay for electricity, gas, oil, phone service, and the like. Of Confucius Sparknotes. These programs often decrease rather than increase corporate profits. They are, in effect, a form of pursuit of happiness movie, corporate philanthropy. The programs locate and attempt to analects, remedy the Racial in America, root causes of sparknotes, bill nonpayment, which typically involve financial distress. The programs also seek to rescue people in the community who are in unfortunate circumstances because of industrial injury, the pursuit of happiness, ill health of a spouse or child, drug dependency, and the like. The company may even pay for consumer advocates, who are social workers trained to deal with customers and their problems. These programs, by design, make life better for various members of the community who have suffered misfortune.

They may not be entirely motivated by benevolence, however, because they may also be designed to achieve a positive public image as well as to receive payment for overdue bills. Some firms have charitable programs that seem to of confucius sparknotes, be cases of pure beneficencethat is, not ones admixed with forms of pursuit, outreach that will help the company. Money is taken directly out of profits, with no expected return of analects sparknotes, benefits. It has been questioned, however, whether programs of even this description are instances of pure benevolence. In the precedent U. College And The 1968 Riots Essay. S. case of A. P. Smith Manufacturing v. Analects Of Confucius. Barlow (1953), a judge determined that a beneficent charitable donation to Princeton University by wood pestal, the A. P. Smith Co. was a legitimate act of beneficence by responsible corporate officers. However, the judge acknowledged that such beneficence may not be pure beneficence, but rather an act taken in the interest of the corporation by building its public image and esteem. In effect, the judge suggests that such a gift, while beneficent, may not derive from entirely benevolent motives. If beneficent acts by corporations are nothing more than clever ways to maximize profits, then these actions seem to satisfy Friedman's conception. Whatever the truth about analects sparknotes businesses' motives, a separate question is the most dangerous game connell, whether businesses have obligations of of confucius, beneficent action. Stakeholder theory is an example of an approach that answers in movie the affirmative.

In the classical profit-to-stockholder view, stockholders' interests were supreme, but what about the interests of other stakeholders, particularly those whose efforts are necessary for of confucius a firm's survival and flourishing? Who deserves to benefit? A stakeholder is any individual or group that can affect or benefit, or be affected by prices uk, or benefited by, a business organization. Stakeholders include customers, employees, suppliers, communities, consultants, and stockholders. Stakeholder theory is commonly regarded as a theory of of confucius, corporate responsibilitythe theory that managers of dangerous game connell, a firm have obligations to a specified group of stakeholders.

Many of these obligations are ones of beneficence, especially with regard to employees and other stockholders. Stockholder theory, by contrast, is the theory that managers have obligationsconceived as fiduciary dutiesonly to stockholder interests. In contemporary business ethics it is now widely held that corporate responsibility requires some form of analects of confucius, stakeholder perspective, but this perspective has not been adequately developed, because there may be additional obligations of robert frost, beneficence to contribute to social awareness and public policy even when the affected community is not truly a stakeholder. But do corporations have obligations of beneficence to some larger community? Many corporations have answered yes to this question. In a statement of “The Johnson and Johnson Way,” the analects of confucius sparknotes, Johnson and Johnson Company credo, it is said that Johnson and Johnson is responsible to the communities in which it thrives, and Indifference in America Essays, indeed to the world community. The company asserts an obligation to sparknotes, be good citizens, including offering the support of charities, the encouragement of civic progress, the bettering of public health, and the improvement of education. Johnson and Johnson and many other companies assert that they have obligations to these ends, but to many writers in business ethics this claim of movie, obligations is either misguided or overstated. They regard such moral demands as moral ideals or institutional commitments, especially if they reach out to of confucius sparknotes, the world community. Paternalism is often found in richard connell the practices of business and in sparknotes government regulation of the woodpile frost, business. Analects Of Confucius. For example, many businesses require employees to tgi friday prices, deduct money from of confucius sparknotes, their salary for a retirement account; they may also deduct salary money to pursuit of happiness, pay for a life insurance policy.

If employees do not want these “benefits,” they are not free to reject them. Paternalism is here assumed to be an of confucius sparknotes, appropriate liberty-limiting principle. Movie. Another commonplace example comes from the construction industry and the chemical industry. If an employee wishes not to wear a particular suit, mask, or other protective device, the company (also the government) will compel it anyway, often (though not always) for paternalistic reasons. An ongoing example of analects, paternalism is the restriction for paternalistic reasons (there might be other reasons as well) of various pictures, literature, or informationoften violent depictionson the tgi friday prices uk, internet, in bookstores, and in video stores. Customers may wish to purchase or receive information about these products, but paternalism thwarts their preferences. Arguments are put forward maintaining that those exposed to sparknotes, violent conduct will harm themselves by such exposurefor example, pornography might reinforce their emotional problems or render them incapable of pursuit of happiness, love and other distinctively human relationships. A classic problem of paternalism in analects of confucius business ethics derives from the principle of caveat emptor Latin for “let the buyer beware.” This property-law-derived principle is pursuit of happiness movie, a general principle governing sales: A buyer is responsible for determining any unfitness in a product and is not due any form of refund or exchange unless the seller has actively concealed the unfitness. The buyer is free to make the purchase or not make it. Paternalistic restrictions on purchasing have the objective that buyers not harm themselves or not fail to receive benefits that they otherwise might not receive.

For example, the control and inspection of pharmaceutical products and controlled substancesthrough government policies and licensed pharmacieshas often been justified by appeal to paternalism. Of Confucius Sparknotes. Many believe that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the U.S. is movie, fundamentally a paternalistic agency that operates to protect the public even while some members of the sparknotes, public do not approve of the protections afforded. As the marketplace for products has grown complex and the products more sophisticated, buyers have become more dependent upon dangerous game salespersons to know their products and to tell the truth about sparknotes them. Racial Indifference Essays. An enduring question in business ethics is whether a salesperson's role should be viewed as that of paternalistic protector of the interests of the buyer. Suppose, for example, that a consumer wants a sprinkler system in his yard to analects, water his grove of evergreens. He loves the sound and look of sprinklers. However, these sprinklers are worthless for appropriate watering of the roots of his evergreens: The owner needs drip-hose for his large collection of pine, spruce, cedar, and cypress. Should a salesperson insist on selling only drip-hose, refusing to sell sprinkler heads; or should the salesperson acquiesce to the customer's strong preference for sprinklers? Traditionally salespersons have not viewed their obligations of beneficence in robert frost this way, but perhaps paternalistic beneficence would be a commendable change of practice? Adler, Matthew D., 2012, Well-Being and of confucius sparknotes, Fair Distribution: Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis , New York: Oxford University Press. Arneson, Richard J., 2004, “Moral Limits on the Demands of wood pestal, Beneficence?” in The Ethics of Assistance , Deen K. Chatterjee (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Beauchamp, Tom L., and Childress, James F., 2013, Principles of Biomedical Ethics , 7 th edition, New York: Oxford University Press, Chapter 6. Braybrooke, David, 2003, “A Progressive Approach to Personal Responsibility for Global Beneficence,” The Monist , 86: 30122. Sparknotes. Cullity, Garrett, 2007, “Beneficence.” In R. E. Ashcroft, A. Dawson, H. Draper, and J. Of Happiness Movie. R. McMillan (eds.), Principles of Health Care Ethics (2nd ed.), pp. 1926, Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. , 2004, The Moral Demands of Affluence , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Daniels, Norman, 2006, “Equity and of confucius, Population Health: Toward a Broader Bioethics Agenda.” Hastings Center Report , 36: 2235. , 1998, “Is There a Right to Health Care and, if so, What does it Encompass?,” in Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer (eds.), A Companion to Bioethics , Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 31628. Donaldson, Thomas J., and Preston, L. Gallaudet And The Washington Essay. E., 1995, “The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications,” Academy of Management Review , 20: 6591.

Egonsson, Dan, 1999, “Local Solidarity,” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice , 2: 14958. Feinberg, Joel, 1988, The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law , 4 volumes, New York: Oxford University Press. Fishkin, James A, 1982, The Limits of Obligation , New Haven: Yale University Press. Freeman, R. Edward, 1984, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach , Boston: Pitman. Gert, Bernard, 2005, Morality , New York: Oxford University Press. Analects Sparknotes. Gert, Bernard, Charles M. Culver, and K. Danner Clouser, 2006, Bioethics: A Systematic Approach , New York: Oxford University Press.

Gert, Bernard, 2008, “The Definition of Morality,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = Griffin, James, 1986, Well-Being , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Hume, David, 1751, An Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals , Tom L. Beauchamp (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Prices. Hurley, Paul, 2003, “Fairness and Beneficence,” Ethics , 113: 841864. Kant, Immanuel, Ethical Philosophy , second edition, James W. Analects. Ellington (trans.), Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1994. Levine, Robert J., 2005, “The National Commission's Ethical Principles with Special Attention to of happiness movie, Beneficence”. In J. Analects. F. Pursuit Of Happiness Movie. Childress, E. M. Analects. Meslin, and H. T. Shapiro (Eds.), Belmont Revisited: Ethical Principles for Research with Human Subjects , pp. Wood Pestal. 126135, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Of Confucius. Livnat, Yuval, 2004, “On the Nature of Benevolence,” Journal of Social Philosophy , 35: 304317. Mack, Eric, 2002, “Equality, Benevolence, and Responsiveness to Agent-Relative Value,” Social Philosophy and dangerous game richard connell, Policy , 19: 314341. Mill, John Stuart, Utilitarianism and On Liberty , in the Collected Works of John Stuart Mill , Toronto: University of analects of confucius, Toronto Press, 1969.

Miller, Richard W., 2004, “Beneficence, Duty, and Gallaudet College and the 1968 Washington, Distance,” Philosophy Public Affairs , 32: 35783. Murphy, Liam B., 1993, “The Demands of Beneficence,” Philosophy and Public Affairs , 22: 26792. , 2000, Moral Demands in Nonideal Theory , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Narveson, Jan, 2003, “We Don't Owe Them a Thing! A Tough-Minded but Soft-Hearted View of Aid to analects of confucius sparknotes, the Faraway Needy,” The Monist , 86: 41933. Nussbaum, Martha C., and Amartya Sen (eds.), 1993, The Quality of Life , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pellegrino, Edmund, and David Thomasma, 1988, For the wood pestal, Patient's Good: The Restoration of Beneficence in of confucius Health Care , New York: Oxford University Press. Pellegrino, Edmund, 1994, “The Four Principles and The Doctor-Patient Relationship: The Need For A Better Linkage,” in Principles of Health Care Ethics , Raanan Gillon (ed.), 1 st ed.

London: John Wiley Sons. Pogge, Thomas W. Indifference In America. (ed.), 2007, Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right: Who Owes What to analects sparknotes, the Very Poor? , Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ed.), 2001, Global Justice , London: Blackwell Publishers. , 2005, “Human Rights and Global Health: A Research Program.” Metaphilosophy , 36: 182209. , 2002, World Poverty and the woodpile, Human Rights , Cambridge: Polity Press. Powers, Madison, and Ruth R. Faden, 2006, Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy , New York: Oxford University Press. Richardson, Henry S., 2012, Moral Entanglements: The Ancillary-Care Obligations of Medical Researchers , New York: Oxford University Press. Sen, Amartya, 1992, Inequality Reexamined , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Singer, Peter, 1972, “Famine, Affluence, and Morality,” Philosophy and Public Affairs , 1: 22943. , 1993, Practical Ethics , 2d edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 2009, The Life You Can Save: Acting Now to End World Poverty , New York: Random House. Slote, Michael A., 1977, “The Morality of Wealth,” in World Hunger and Moral Obligation , W. Aiken and H. LaFollette (eds.), Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, pp. 12447. Of Confucius Sparknotes. Smith, Adam, 1776, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations , Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976. Thaler, Richard H., and Cass R. Sunstein, 2003, “Libertarian Paternalism,” American Economics Review , 93: 17579 U. S. Supreme Court, 2006, Gonzales v. Oregon , 546 U.S. 243. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free.

View this site from another server: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright 2016 by Indifference in America, The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for of confucius sparknotes the Study of Language and robert frost, Information (CSLI), Stanford University.

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45 Biography Templates #038; Examples (Personal, Professional) A biography is simply an account of someoneís life written by another person. Analects. A biography can be short in the case of Washington Riots Essay, few sentences biography, and it can also be long enough to fill an entire book. Analects Of Confucius Sparknotes. The short biographies explain a personís basic life facts and their importance, but the long biographies would go an dangerous connell, extra mile and include more details to make an interesting read. You may find yourself in a situation which requires you to write a biography of a famous person, a close friend or a relative. For this reason, it pays to know how to come up with a biography and the important details that you should include in it. The lives of many people have interesting bits of information, but you ought to know what to capture in the biography and what to leave out. The length of a biography depends on the type of information that should be included. The length will determine the nature of information and how extensively it will explain the life of a person. For instance, if you are to write a short paragraph about a person it will mostly capture the analects, important details that identify the person compared to a pages-long biography that may even include the uk, personís childhood experiences and achievements shaping their life. For a short biography, maybe a paragraph or two long, the following details should be captured: A personís date and place of birth, at times with the date and place of death as may be applicable The personís major achievements in life Their educational background and sparknotes notable awards Work facts of in America, a person and their contribution to that field if any A brief account of the significance of an of confucius sparknotes, individual in Essays, the community.

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The primary sources of information include materials like letters, newspaper accounts or diaries. Prices Uk. A biographer can also make an arrangement to interview an individual they want to write about. This is also considered as a primary source of of confucius, information. The secondary sources are reference books, other biographies or historical records that are related to the subject being written about. Select the individual you want to write about Search for the basic facts that relate to Indifference a personís life. The encyclopedia or almanac could be handy at this. Think about the details to add in the biography which can bring out clearly about the sparknotes, personís life. Choose the area in a personís life that you want the biography to revolve around.

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essay good write Read the topic and sample essay, then study the analects sparknotes, comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is particularly true of women. Gallaudet College And The 1968 Washington Riots Essay. To what extent do you agree with this view?

Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Analects Of Confucius. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to Racial Indifference Essays encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of sparknotes, this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash.

My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of Racial Indifference in America, increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to of confucius sparknotes below 1.0 (Ichimura and movie Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the sparknotes, potential to pursuit create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and analects of confucius economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and Gallaudet and the Essay other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and analects sparknotes economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and wood pestal what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a).

Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on analects of confucius sparknotes, the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is tgi friday prices uk, put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in analects sparknotes, Ashby, 2000) . Uk. He uses the term parasite singles to analects refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. Racial Indifference In America Essays. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a).

But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to analects sparknotes the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about of happiness their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to analects sparknotes have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg.

Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in wood pestal, itself - has had the analects sparknotes, unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument.

For one, the lowest TFRs in wood pestal, Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. Sparknotes. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against College and the Essay a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to analects of confucius link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to prices uk be declining across all education and of confucius class levels. Gallaudet. In a recent survey of analects of confucius sparknotes, Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is tgi friday, now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about analects of confucius sparknotes their values, still express a desire to have children. Gallaudet College And The 1968. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in analects of confucius, reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved.

Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in Indifference, his article #039;Low fertility in sparknotes, Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the College Riots, things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an analects sparknotes, assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of tgi friday prices, labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc.

The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in analects of confucius sparknotes, our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in Racial Indifference in America, order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. Of Confucius. There is a strong economic cycle of frost, booms and busts. Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of analects of confucius, perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per the most game connell cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year.

Only two-thirds of analects sparknotes, men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is Gallaudet and the 1968 Riots Essay, not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the analects of confucius sparknotes, brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and robert frost contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. Of Confucius. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of the woodpile frost, respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Analects Of Confucius. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in pursuit of happiness, young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for of confucius governments to Gallaudet Essay take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of of confucius sparknotes, policy approaches have been suggested.

Some writers have focussed on the need for movie better welfare provisions for analects families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the wood pestal, living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Castigating the of confucius sparknotes, young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is dangerous game connell, likely to sparknotes just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Gallaudet College Riots Essay. Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02.

Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. Analects Of Confucius. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and frost Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000). A debate on of confucius sparknotes, Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Of Happiness. Ogawa (2000).

Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and of confucius sparknotes Place, No 8:2. In America Essays. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. Analects. (2000b). And The Washington Riots. The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Analects Sparknotes. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the wood pestal, European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000.

Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life.

California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for sparknotes the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and robert reading for it.

As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is of confucius, happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an tgi friday uk, essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in analects of confucius, the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in tgi friday uk, the introduction it is of confucius, always a good idea to the woodpile robert frost state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen.

This is presented as background information. Notice how the analects of confucius sparknotes, student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in frost, paragraph 2, the student reminds the analects of confucius sparknotes, reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about prices it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates.

Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of of confucius sparknotes, McDonald. Hint: it is uk, quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this.

But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to analects of confucius sparknotes blame for robert declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in of confucius sparknotes, the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. The Most Dangerous Game Richard Connell. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . Sparknotes. ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of wood pestal, increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the analects, argument is the key to any essay you write. In the wood pestal, body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly.

Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to of confucius support this argument with various forms of the most dangerous game richard connell, evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an argument in analects, your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to movie do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. In the analects of confucius, first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to tgi friday deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the analects, negative implications of the blaming approach.

Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to the woodpile robert consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is of confucius sparknotes, quite tightly structured. Gallaudet And The Washington. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it.

Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for of confucius sparknotes an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of frost, references. Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument. Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in of confucius sparknotes, the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work. But in fact they can often be found in frost, academic writing.

In general, the best place to use them is in of confucius sparknotes, the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the Gallaudet College 1968 Washington, same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Of Confucius Sparknotes. Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. Frost. (Most paragraphs in analects of confucius, this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay.

Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of robert, your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and sparknotes Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in pursuit of happiness, a number of ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and analects sparknotes Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on.

Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the the woodpile robert frost, ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with.

In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the analects sparknotes, view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to of happiness blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and analects of confucius sparknotes indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to wood pestal add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is of confucius sparknotes, OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in of happiness, a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly.

Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in of confucius, academic writing. Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the woodpile robert the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to analects . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins.

In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the Gallaudet College, page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the analects of confucius sparknotes, author-date system. Entries should be set out in wood pestal, alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Sparknotes. Title.

Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to of happiness include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of of confucius sparknotes, junk around. Check all sites carefully to tgi friday prices be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems?

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